LINCOLNSHIRE FIRE & RESCUE
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LINCOLNSHIRE FIRE & RESCUE. RURAL FIREFIGHTING. COMPETENCE STATEMENTS: CS416 – Heath & Woodland Fires CS396 – Flexible Backpack Extinguisher. AIM.

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LINCOLNSHIRE FIRE & RESCUE

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Lincolnshire fire rescue

LINCOLNSHIRE FIRE & RESCUE

RURAL

FIREFIGHTING


Lincolnshire fire rescue

COMPETENCE STATEMENTS:

CS416 – Heath & Woodland Fires

CS396 – Flexible Backpack Extinguisher


Lincolnshire fire rescue

AIM

  • To give operational crews an understanding of the hazards, risks and operational procedures associated with controlling rural fires, in particular

  • “Heath and Woodland fires”


Objectives

OBJECTIVES

  • List and explain the different rural fires and their hazards

  • Identify the hazards, risks and control measures when extinguishing the three different types of heath and woodland fire

  • Describe the methods to protect personnel, equipment and appliances from heat, fire and smoke spread

  • Define the term “Crown Fire”

  • Identify some other possible resources, farm equipment or farm systems that could assist with, and control, the fire spread

  • Recall other types of rural fires and the need to consider local fire plans


Rural fires classifications

RURAL FIRES - CLASSIFICATIONS

  • Classifications

  • Smouldering

  • Creeping

  • Running

  • Torching

  • Spotting

  • Crowning

  • Blow-Up


Rural fires hazards

RURAL FIRES - HAZARDS

  • Hazards

  • Terrain

  • Weather conditions

  • Smoke

  • Fatigue

  • Lone working

  • Manual handling

  • Overhead power lines

  • Rapid fire spread

  • Difficult access

  • Night working

  • Manoeuvring off road

  • Surrounded by fire


Heath and grass fires

HEATH AND GRASS FIRES

  • There are three types of heath and grass fire:

  • Heath and Grass fires in non-peaty soil

  • Heath and Grass fires in peaty soil

  • Gorse, Bracken and undergrowth fires


1 heath and grass fires in non peaty soil

1) HEATH AND GRASS FIRES IN NON-PEATY SOIL

  • Characteristics

  • The fire only travels through surface growth

  • Risks:

  • Personnel becoming isolated

  • Lack of water supplies

  • Extinguishing Methods:

  • To extinguish use beaters or water

  • Consider the ‘Flexible Backpack Extinguisher’

  • Consider use of HVP & Water carrier


2 heath and grass fires in peaty soil

2) HEATH AND GRASS FIRES IN PEATY SOIL

  • Characteristics

  • Fires travel underground as well as above ground

  • Fire travelling underground is almost invisible

  • Risks:

  • Injury to personnel due to soft ground

  • Limited access for vehicles & by foot – fatigue, stress

  • Extinguishing Methods:

  • Surface fires are extinguished as per non-peaty soil mentioned previously

  • Consider use of HVP & Water carrier

  • Underground fires can be extinguished either by:

  • i) Trenching ii) Water Jets


3 gorse bracken and undergrowth fires

3) GORSE, BRACKEN AND UNDERGROWTH FIRES

  • Characteristics

  • Generally more dense and wider covering

  • Risks:

  • Personnel & public near by

  • Carrying equipment over rough terrain

  • Extinguishing Methods:

  • Fire Breaks

  • High pressure hose reel jets

  • Wetting a fire break

  • Consider use of HVP & Water carrier

  • Beaters – limited use


Woodland fires

WOODLAND FIRES

  • Characteristics:

  • Numerous sizes and types of trees

  • Sparks can travel long distances causing secondary fires

  • Change of wind directions

  • Underground fires

  • Crown Fires

  • Extinguish by:

  • Create fire breaks

  • Beating – limited use

  • Use of water – jets and hosereels

  • Consider use of HVP & Water carrier

Crown Fires:This is a term used when the fire spreads from one tree to the next, high up in the tree canopy. It causes problems with the fire spreading over the top of firefighters and it’s extremely difficult to extinguish.


When attending incidents

WHEN ATTENDING INCIDENTS

  • Liaise with Forestry Commission Officers

  • Refer to the fire plan (if available)

  • Consider RVP’s, access, water supplies ( early make ups )

  • Decide on the action to be taken

  • Ensure all personnel have correct PPE and manual handling techniques

  • Monitor crew welfare / hydration ( reliefs )

  • Monitor fire spread

  • Monitor water supplies

  • Monitor environmental conditions


Ppe manual handling considerations

PPE & MANUAL HANDLING CONSIDERATIONS

  • Full PPE(inc goggles, gloves, BA if required)

  • Carrying equipment over rough terrain

  • Creating Fire Breaks

  • Beating

  • Making up large quantities of hose & equipment

  • Crew welfare / hydration (Safety Flash: 07/06)


Fire spread access

FIRE SPREAD & ACCESS

  • Speed of fire spread due to:

  • Environmental conditions –

  • Weather, temperature, wind direction (speed and strength)

  • Type (FUEL) & size of vegetation area

  • Access for appliances & personnel:

  • Limited with large open areas of vegetation

  • Terrains vary - steep hillsides to soft boggy areas


Hazards of fire spread

HAZARDS OF FIRE SPREAD

Loss of appliances

Firefighters surrounded by fire

Property involved

Loss of water supplies


Overhead power lines

OVERHEAD POWER LINES

SOP 13, Risk Card 29


Hazards of smoke spread

HAZARDS OF SMOKE SPREAD

Disorientation

Concealed hazards

Isolation of personnel

Smoke affecting nearby public roads

Smoke Inhalation

Reduced visibility


Non service equipment personnel

NON SERVICE EQUIPMENT & PERSONNEL

  • Agricultural vehicles

  • Earth moving vehicles

  • ( Above must be trained operators )

  • Volunteers – supervise!

  • Considerations:

  • Suitability of the equipment

  • Lack of competence of the operators

  • Lack of experience of emergency situations

  • Lack of effective command and control systems

  • Service personnel and members of the public close by


Other types of rural fires within lincolnshire

Standing crop fires

Stubble fires

Haystacks

Agricultural buildings and machinery/Vehicle fires

Railway embankments

Hedges/Hedgerows

Landfill fires

Woods e.g. , Bourne, Laughton, Stapleford

OTHER TYPES OF RURAL FIRES WITHIN LINCOLNSHIRE

This list is not exhaustive


Risk card 47

RISK CARD 47


References

REFERENCES

  • Crews should familiarise themselves with the following:

    • Risk card 47 - Rural Fires

    • Risk card 29 - Electricity

    • NOS Unit FF4.1 / FF4.2

    • SOP 13 - Rural Areas

    • F202 / F202A

    • TB 1/97 – Breathing Apparatus

    • Op Tac note 9 – Water Supply

    • Op Tech note 70 – PPE

    • Safety Flash 07/06


Summary

SUMMARY

  • The different types of rural fires and their characteristics

  • Identified the hazards, risks and control measures when extinguishing the three different types of heath and woodland fire

  • The methods to protect personnel, equipment and appliances from heat, fire and smoke spread

  • The term “Crown Fire”

  • Identified other resources, farm equipment and farm systems that could assist with, and control, the fire spread

  • Recalled other types of rural fires and the need to consider local fire plans


Any questions

ANY QUESTIONS?


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