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A CFD METHODOLOGY FOR FIRE SPREAD AND RADIATIVE EFFECTS SIMULATION IN LONGITUDINAL VENTILATION TUNNELS: APPLICATION TO THE MEMORIAL TUNNEL. D. Borello*, G.Giuli** and F. Rispoli* *DepartMent of Mechanics and Aeronautics University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’

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D borello g giuli and f rispoli

A CFD METHODOLOGY FOR FIRE SPREAD AND RADIATIVE EFFECTS SIMULATION IN LONGITUDINAL VENTILATION TUNNELS: APPLICATION TO THE MEMORIAL TUNNEL

D. Borello*, G.Giuli** and F. Rispoli*

*DepartMent of Mechanics and Aeronautics University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’

**ENEA – Italian Agency for the Energy, the New Technologies and the Environment

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Index

INDEX

  • MOTIVATIONS

  • MEMORIAL TUNNEL DESCRIPTION

  • FLOW MODELS

  • NUMERICAL DETAILS

  • NUMERICAL CAMPAIGN

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Motivations

MOTIVATIONS

  • MAJOR INTEREST IN TUNNEL SAFETY AND POLLUTION CONTROL

  • EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS GIVE PARTIAL FLOW INFORMATION

  • DEVELOPING A NUMERICAL METHODOLOGY DEVOTED TO TUNNEL FLOW SIMULATION ABLE TO:

    • PREDICT THE FLOW BEHAVIOR IN OPERATING CONDITIONS

    • DESCRIBE THE FIRE SPREAD IN ORDER TO:

      • PREDICT MAIN FLOW PHENOMENA

        BACK-LAYERING AND SMOKE DIFFUSION

      • DEFINE THE BEST VENTILATION CONFIGURATION IN

        EMERGENCY SITUATIONS

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


D borello g giuli and f rispoli

MEMORIAL TUNNEL 1/5Memorial Tunnel Fire Ventilation ProgramMassachusetts Highway Department & Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff, Massachusetts, November 1995

  • EXPERIMENTAL CAMPAIGN (1995)

    • LONGITUDINAL, TRANSVERSAL, MIXED CONFIGURATIONS

    • LONGITUDINAL CONFIGURATION :

      15 JET FANS (in groups of three)

    • LENGTH: 853m, PASSAGE SECTION: 60.4 m2, SLOPE: 3.2 %

    • JET FAN: air velocity: 34.2 m/s, mass flow rate: 43 m3/s

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Memorial tunnel 2 5

NORTH

ROOM

SOUTH

ROOM

811 m

21.3m

853,7 m

4.33 m

Sect. A

Sect. B

0.91 m

0.76 m

Walkway

0.91 m

sect. A

sect. B

7.86m

7.86m

sect. B

sect. A

8.76 m

8.76 m

4.33 m

y

y

z

x

MEMORIAL TUNNEL 2/5

  • SECTIONS

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Memorial tunnel 3 5

1

4

853.7 m

2

5

3

6

0 m

95

190

285

379

474

615

N

o

r

t

h

S

o

u

t

h

Jet Fans Flow

x

Pan

z

ON

ON

Slope 3,2 %

10

13

14

11

15

12

7

8

9

MEMORIAL TUNNEL 3/5

  • PLANT

I

N

L

E

T

O

U

T

L

E

T

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Memorial tunnel 4 4

MEMORIAL TUNNEL 4/4

  • PANS

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Memorial tunnel 5 5

MEMORIAL TUNNEL 5/5

  • JET FANS

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Flow models

FLOW MODELS

  • 3-DIMENSIONAL, STEADY, TURBULENT REACTING FLOW

  • TURBULENCE MODELING

    • STANDARD k-e MODEL (Jones and Launder, 1988)

  • BUOYANCY MODELING

  • COMBUSTION MODELING

    • HEAT SOURCE PLACED IN THE FIRE LOCATION

  • RADIATION MODELING

    • IMMERSOL SYNTHETIC TREATMENT (Spalding, 1991)

    • NO RADIATION MODELING (Pucher et al., 2001)

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Numerics 1 2

R = 4.33 m

2.44 m

R = 2.1 m

1.575 m

3.48 m

8.76 m

Walkway

y

x

NUMERICS 1/2

  • COMPUTATIONAL GRID: 31 X 30 X 327 cells

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Numerics 2 2

NUMERICS 2/2

  • BFC GRIDS

  • GENERALISED CO-LOCATED SCHEME

  • SIMPLE SOLUTION SCHEME

  • FALSE TIME STEP RELAXATION FOR V and T

  • WALL ROUGHNESS : 3 mm

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Analysed test cases

ANALYSED TEST CASES

  • COLD FLOW TEST: (T-A)

    – 15 JET FANS

  • T606A FIRE TEST (10 MW): (T-B, T-C)

    – 2 JET FANS

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Numerical campaign 1 10 cold flow simulation

NUMERICAL CAMPAIGN 1/10COLD FLOW SIMULATION

  • OPERATING CONDITIONS:

    • 15 ACTIVE FANS

    • SWIRL NUMBER: 0.5

    • CONSTANT PROPERTIES GAS

    • WALL LAW FOR VELOCITY INSIDE THE TUNNEL

    • FREE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS IN INLET AND OUTLET

  • COMPARISONS

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Numerical campaign 2 10 fire simulation

NUMERICAL CAMPAIGN 2/10FIRE SIMULATION

  • TEST CASE T606A 10 MW

  • OPERATING CONDITIONS:

    • 2 ACTIVE FANS

    • SWIRL NUMBER: 0.5

    • IDEAL GAS

    • WALL LAW FOR VELOCITY AND TEMPERATURE

    • FREE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS IN INLET AND OUTLET

  • SYNTHETIC AND DIRECT RADIATION SIMULATION

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Numerical campaign 3 10 fire simulation

NUMERICAL CAMPAIGN 3/10FIRE SIMULATION

  • CRITICAL VELOCITY: 1.8 m/s (104 m3/s)

  • COMPARISONS

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Numerical campaign 4 10 fire simulation

NUMERICAL CAMPAIGN 4/10FIRE SIMULATION

  • COMPARISONS ( V and T PROFILES)

    • MEASUREMENT POSITIONS

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Numerical campaign 5 10 fire simulation

Pan

NUMERICAL CAMPAIGN 5/10FIRE SIMULATION

  • COMPARISONS ( T and V PROFILES)

    L214 (18 m)

a)b)

V (m/s)

T (°C)

Loop 214 – Temperature (a) and velocity (b) profiles

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Numerical campaign 6 10 fire simulation

Pan

NUMERICAL CAMPAIGN 6/10FIRE SIMULATION

  • COMPARISONS ( T and V PROFILES)

    L209 (321 m)

a)b)

T (°C)

V (m/s)

Loop 209 – Temperature (a) and velocity (b) profiles

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Numerical campaign 7 10 fire simulation

Pan

NUMERICAL CAMPAIGN 7/10FIRE SIMULATION

  • COMPARISONS ( T and V PROFILES)

    L305 (604 m)

a)b)

T (°C) V (m/s)

Loop 305 – Temperature (a) and velocity (b) profiles

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Numerical campaign 8 10 fire simulation

NUMERICAL CAMPAIGN 8/10FIRE SIMULATION

  • COMPARISONS ( T and V PROFILES)

    L302 (681 m)

Pan

a)b)

V (m/s)

T (°C)

Loop 302 – Temperature (a) and velocity (b) profiles

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Numerical campaign 9 10 fire simulation

Pan

NUMERICAL CAMPAIGN 9/10FIRE SIMULATION

  • COMPARISONS ( T and V PROFILES)

    L202 (833 m)

a)b)

V (m/s)

T (°C)

Loop 202 – Temperature (a) and velocity (b) profiles

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Numerical campaign 10 10 fire simulation

NUMERICAL CAMPAIGN 10/10FIRE SIMULATION

  • T contours

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


Conclusions

CONCLUSIONS

  • AN ACCURATE METHODOLOGY FOR FIRE SIMULATION IN TUNNELS HAS BEEN DESCRIBED

  • THE PREDICTION CAPABILITIES HAVE BEEN DEMONSTRATED IN CRITICAL FLOW CONDITIONS

  • SUCCESSFUL SIMULATION OF RADIATION PHENOMENA

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


S gottardo 17 km switzerland 24 10 2001

S. GOTTARDO – 17 KmSwitzerland 24.10.2001

International PHOENICS User Conference – 23-27 September, 2002 – Moscow


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