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Competency-Based Training Solutions in a non-standardized world. Capt. Kris Van den Bergh Vice-President Pilot Provisioning. APATS September 2009. Problem Definition. We fly safe airplanes We are part of an industry that has established an expectation of safety in the traveling public.

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Competency-Based Training Solutionsin a non-standardized world

Capt. Kris Van den BerghVice-President Pilot Provisioning

APATSSeptember 2009

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Problem Definition

  • We fly safe airplanes

  • We are part of an industry that has established an expectation of safety in the traveling public.

  • Our airplanes are well designed.

  • The technology engineered into today’s aircraft substantially increases crew situational awareness and reduces crew workload.

  • Training methods and supporting evaluation criteria, in our view, are challenged to keep pace.

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Problem Definition

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Problem Definition

+ 50%


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Problem Definition

+ 70%


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Problem Definition

  • The primary response, thus far, has been to increase the prescriptive hourly requirements, required maneuvers, and testing processes necessary for qualification.

  • There have been structural improvements:

    • Improvements to Training Tools & Products (Technology)

    • Advanced Qualification Proficiency (AQP) Training

    • ITQI Initiatives (Instructor Training & Evidenced Based Training)

    • Maturing Threat and Error Management (TEM) Programs

  • We are still challenged to advance our training and evaluation methods in the international aviation community.

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Competency-Based Training

  • One possible solution is competency based training and assessment.


& Maneuvers




in classic

training program


in proficiency-based

training program






  • Competency based training:

    • Places emphasis on achieving benchmarked standards of performance throughout the training, or

    • Is training that focuses on what a person will do in the workplace after completing a program of training.

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Competency-Based Training

  • Most modern military training is competency based.

  • Application to civil flight training is relatively new & limited.

  • Only achievable if the principles of the Instructional Systems Design process are well understood and successfully applied.

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Competency-Based Training

  • Existing prescriptive training programs confirm that a trainee has obtained the knowledge and mastered the skills associated with a given task by a final test or progress test.

  • Competency based programs, by design, mandate the continuous assessment of KSA competencies against benchmarked standards using a Learning Management System and other tools to ensure the continuous maturation of trainees as they progress through a given program of instruction.

  • The question before us…

    is competency based training realistically achievablein today’s global aviation community?

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Competency-Based Training

  • Is standardization in a non-standardized world possible?

  • Can we develop competency based training standards that complement and improve our current training initiatives and priorities?

  • We believe it is feasible if we conform to several features that are the basis of competency based training and assessment.

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Competency Based Training Features

  • A Comprehensive Aircrew Selection Process.

  • Aviation English Language (AEL) Training

  • Competency Based Training and Assessment

    • Underlying instructional systems design process

    • Competency based training environment

      • Benchmarked standards of performance, focused on the end goal

      • Integration of theoretical and practical skills

      • Supporting training materials

      • Satisfactory completion of training is only based on the achievement of all specified competencies

    • Training emphasis on the crew

    • LOFT/scenario based training predominates

    • Integrated CRM/TEM

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Competency Based Training Features

  • Practical and Theoretical Training

    • Competencies precisely defined

    • Cumulatively provide the theoretical and practical competencies of an ATPL holder qualified to operate a multi-engine, turbine powered, pressurized airplane in all possible operational environments.

    • Windshear, CFIT, Upset, and recovery from energy critical maneuvers required.

    • CRM/TEM attitudinal competencies trained in a mission context.

    • FSTD’s provide the fidelities necessary to train competency based objectives.

    • Training providers tasked with coordinating specific regulatory requirements with the National Authority.

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Competency Based Training Features

  • Instructional Competencies

    • Defined for each phase.

    • Confirmed by the supporting quality system.

    • Formally assessed.

  • Program Oversight

    • Confirmation of the ATO’s training processes.

    • Confirmation of the ATO’s quality system.

    • Review of the ATO’s risk indicators previously identified in the risk profile.

    • Assessment of training fidelity (courseware, instruction, FSTD’s).

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Competency Based Training Features

  • Testing

    • Comprehensive assessment of developing ATPL knowledge and skills.

    • PF and PNF/PM.

    • Evaluation standards connected to existing/future technologies.

  • Data Collection and Analysis

    • Absolutely essential to assure competency development.

    • ICAO data collection recommendations provide a good start.

    • Data collection should extend through release to the line and the first year of operational experience to validate the training process.

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CAE Initiatives

  • Our Proposed MPL program and existing ATPL training programs incorporate competency based training features.

  • Examples:

    • CASS

    • Standard Proficiency Objectives

    • Robust quality systems

      • Providing TO’s with a set of priorities that support day-to-day operations, augment safety initiatives, reveal latent threats to the organization, confirm program execution and instructor proficiency, and provide long term action items.

    • Comprehensive and fully integrated planning & data collection system

    • CAE Global Flight Operations Manual

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CAE Initiatives

  • Airline/Customer Coordination

    • Training expectations/special needs.

    • Traditional or AQP?

    • Cadet selection.

    • Coordination of extended data collection requirements.

    • Coordination with sponsoring airline’s NAA inspector.

  • National Authority Coordination

    • Many ICAO recommended training standards are tasked to NAAs.

    • They include ATO Certification Requirements, Quality System Requirements, and SMS requirements.

      End goal is improved training fidelity that fully utilizes advanced training methods & technologies.