NEW TESTAMENT FOUNDATIONS
Download
1 / 77

NEW TESTAMENT FOUNDATIONS NT 102 THE CHURCH & THE FUTURE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 147 Views
  • Uploaded on

NEW TESTAMENT FOUNDATIONS NT 102 THE CHURCH & THE FUTURE. JUDE Introduction 1. Are among the most neglected of NT books. 2. Bear the closest literary relationship with II Peter. Two primary issues A. Who wrote Jude?

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' NEW TESTAMENT FOUNDATIONS NT 102 THE CHURCH & THE FUTURE' - chaman


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

NEW TESTAMENT FOUNDATIONS

NT 102

THE CHURCH &

THE FUTURE


  • JUDE

  • Introduction

  • 1. Are among the most neglected of NT books.

  • 2. Bear the closest literary relationship with II Peter.

  • Two primary issues

  • A. Who wrote Jude?

  • B. What about Jude’s “citation” of Jewish pseudepigraphical material?



  • b. James-es in the NT

  • i. James the brother of Jesus (Gal 1:19; 2:9)

  • ii. James the son of Alphaeus (Mk 3:18; Mt 10:3)

  • iii. James son of Zebedee (brother of John; Mk 1:19; Mt 4:21)

  • c. Probability of Intention

  • 2. Self-differentiation


  • B. Date

  • C. Canonicity

  • 1. Early Acceptance

  • 2. Questioned Material

  • Jude’s use of pseudepigraphical literature (vv. 9, 14)

  • a. Michael & Satan disputing over Moses’ body (v.9)

  • (recounted in The Assumption of Moses)

  • b. The prophecy of Enoch

  • c. Other allusions & images


  • 3. Handling “Problem”

  • a. How does one cope with an inspired author citing non-inspired material, especially when the events might not have happened?

  • b. Recognize that the use is actually not problematic.

  • Commonly known material is being used to make or illustrate a point NOT to argue for its historicity or canonicity.

  • Canonicity may never have entered the writer’s mind.


  • Purpose & Content

  • A. Purpose

  • To warn against “certain men” who have infiltrated the community (vv. 8, 10, 12, 16, 19)

  • B. Content

  • 1. Introduction (vv.1-2)

  • 2. Warnings against godless impostors (vv.3-16)

  • a. Actions of “impostors”


  • b. Characteristics of impostors

  • i. Are libertines (antinomians; cf. Rom 6:1; “let us sin that grace may abound!”)

  • ii. Are boastful, abusive, reject authority, and divisive (vv.8b-10, 15f, 19)


  • c. Condemnation of impostors

  • i. OT archetypes of wickedness

  • ii. Imagery: blemishes, rainless clouds, autumn trees without fruit and uprooted, wild waves foaming up their shame, wandering stars (vv.12-13)


  • 3. Summons to persevere in these last times (vv.17- 23)

  • a. Remember the last days

  • b. “to contend for the faith once for all delivered to the saints”

  • c. Be merciful to those who doubt, snatch others from the flames, hate anything to do with the corruption of this present age.

  •  4. Doxology: justly famous (vv.24f)


  • REVELATION

  • Introduction

  • A. Distinctiveness of the book

  • B. Strangeness of the book

  • “Apocalypses” means “to reveal” or to uncover knowledge previously hidden.

  • Task: to uncover theological truth behind apocalyptic literature


  • C. Responses to the book

  • 1. Avoidance

  • 2. Utter fixation

  • D. Key issue in studying the book

  • What is Revelation’s genre & how should one read Revelation?





  • B. Date

  • 1. General acceptance

  • 2. Possibility

  • 3. Probability

  • Revelation was probably penned during the reign of Domitian because of…

  • a. Situations of the churches fit that period more effectively

  • b. Myth of a Nero-redivivus makes better sense (13:7; 17:10)

  •  C. Destination


  • Methods of Interpretation

  • A. Preterist View (“a contemporary-historical” approach)

  • 1. Content

  • a. Everything is past & has been fulfilled

  • b. Revelation is a prophecy of the fall of Jerusalem in 70 AD (or Fall of Rome 470 AD)


  • 2. Advantages

  • a. Sees Revelation relevant to the 1st c. audience

  • b. Emphasizes use of the OT in the NT

  • c. Acknowledges that Rev 11 nowhere says Jerusalem has fallen yet


  • 3. Problems

  • a. Must one symbol be exclusively a referent to a particular historical reality in John’s day?

  • b. Complete overthrow of Satan has not happened yet and did not happen in 70 AD

  • c. Use of OT: Daniel predicts universal defeat of kingdoms of evil (Dan 7 cf. Rev 4, 5, 20 etc)


  • B. Historicist View

  • 1. Content

  • Interprets Revelation as the forecast of history from the time of John up to the commentator’s own time, usually history of Western Europe (e.g. Middle Ages)

  • 2. Advantage

  • Sees God’s sovereign hand in history

  • 3. Problems

  • a. Symbols change in every generation: too narrow & too subjective

  • b. Why only the history of Western Europe?


  • C C. Futurist View (eschatological view)

  • 1. Content

  • a. Often dispensationalist - futurist perspective: The Church & Israel are separate, so prophecies to Israel have yet to be revealed.

  • b. Rapture of the Church (pre-, mid-, post-), 7 year tribulation

  • c. Christ’s millennial reign

  • d. End of millennium, final rebellion by Satan followed by Christ’s reign in the new cosmos.


  • 2. Advantages

  • a. Recognizes 4:1: “I will show you what must come to pass after these things.”

  • b. Introduces rapture doctrine (cf. 3:10)

  • c. Chronological progression

  • d. Treats the book as “naturally” as possible


  • 3. Problems

  • a. Rev has no relevance/significance to 1st c. audience

  • b. reduces NT eschatology to the very end of history


  • D. Idealist View

  • Revelation as a (timeless) depiction of the forces between good & evil, between God & Satan.

  • 1. Content

  • a. Symbolic expression of basic principles of how God acts throughout history

  • b. Principles of grace & judgment

  • c. The ageless struggle between good & evil

  • d. Philosophy of history


  • 2. Advantages

  • Appreciates the book’s theological symbolism & universal applicability

  •  3. Problems

  • Denies any specific universal fulfillment or consummation in time



  • Genre Idealist outlooks

  • A. 3 kinds of Rev genre (1:1, 3, 4-5): Apocalyptic, Prophecy, Letter

  • 1. Revelation as apocalyptic(1:1)

  • a. Origins of the genre

  • (1) Grew out of OT prophetic literature

  • (2) Born in persecution by world empires

  • (3) Gave rise to a coded response to Israel’s suffering

  • (4) Intended to encourage the faithful

  • (5) Examples of OT apocalyptic literature (e.g. Joel, Ezekiel)


  • b. Characteristics of the genre Idealist outlooks

  • (1) Planned literary works

  • (2) Vision & heavenly journey

  • (3) Never intended to be literal

  • (4) Written usually pseudonymously

  • (5) Usually “sealed up” for a future time, but intended for the present


  • “Apocalyptic entails the revelatory communication of heavenly secrets by an otherworldly being to a seer who presents the visions in a narrative framework; the visions guide readers into a transcendent reality that takes precedence over the current situation and encourages readers to persevere in the midst of their trials. The visions reverse normal experience by making the heavenly mysteries the real world and depicting the present crisis as a temporary, illusory situation. This is achieved via God’s transforming the world for the faithful” (Osborne)


  • (6) Characteristics of Apocalyptic literature: heavenly secrets by an otherworldly being to a seer who presents the visions in a narrative framework; the visions guide readers into a transcendent reality that takes precedence over the current situation and encourages readers to persevere in the midst of their trials. The visions reverse normal experience by making the heavenly mysteries the real world and depicting the present crisis as a temporary, illusory situation. This is achieved via God’s transforming the world for the faithful” (Osborne)

  • i. Pessimism toward the present age

  • ii. The promise of salvation or restoration

  • iii. The view of the transcendent reality

  • iv. A sense of determinism

  • v. A view of 2 ages

  • c. Revelation as example & alteration of the genre


  • 2. Revelation as heavenly secrets by an otherworldly being to a seer who presents the visions in a narrative framework; the visions guide readers into a transcendent reality that takes precedence over the current situation and encourages readers to persevere in the midst of their trials. The visions reverse normal experience by making the heavenly mysteries the real world and depicting the present crisis as a temporary, illusory situation. This is achieved via God’s transforming the world for the faithful” (Osborne)prophecy(1:3; 22:18-19)

  • a. Characteristics of OT Prophecy

  • (1) Largely concerned with God’s immediate dealings with his people

  • (2) Developed from the time when God’s Spirit was among his people Israel


  • b. Implications of Prophetic in Revelation heavenly secrets by an otherworldly being to a seer who presents the visions in a narrative framework; the visions guide readers into a transcendent reality that takes precedence over the current situation and encourages readers to persevere in the midst of their trials. The visions reverse normal experience by making the heavenly mysteries the real world and depicting the present crisis as a temporary, illusory situation. This is achieved via God’s transforming the world for the faithful” (Osborne)

  • (1) Not to be relegated to the distant future

  • (a) God’s kingly intervention had already begun in Jesus

  • (b) Complete fulfillment has not yet come

  • (2) Not the time of the quenched Spirit—this is the new Israel—the Spirit of God has been outpoured upon his people (1:10-11; 19:10)

  • c. Difference between prophetic (God’s redemptive work in history) & apocalyptic elements (God’s acts outside of history) in Rev



  • 3. Revelation as solution letter(vv.4-5)

  • a. Addresses specific needs

  • b. It is written with purpose

  • B. Genre types in Revelation

  • 1. Apocalyptic

  • 2. Prophetic

  •   3. Letter

  • A prophetic apocalypse in epistolary format


  • Interpreting Revelation solution

  • A. Following some guidelines (esp. the use of symbols)

  • 1. What is the significance of each symbol, whether Graeco-Roman or Jewish?

  • 2. See visions as integrated wholes

  • 3. The influence of OT is thorough-going


  • 4. Consider variability & sources solution

  • a. Some are constant stock-in-trade images (Babylon = Rome; horse = power, authority)

  • b. Some are polyvalent, and will vary from scene to scene

  • c. Some are composite

  • d. Some are Roman cultural symbols

  • e. Many are OT references (e.g. “Harlot”; “Babylon”; “Armageddon”)





  • h. Numerology solution

  • Numbers 3, 4, 7, 10, 12, 70 predominate.

  • “4”: cosmic completeness (e.g. earth’s 4 corners & 4 winds, see 7:1; 20:8)

  • Numbers can be mystifying, e.g. “666” (for survey of views, see Mounce)


  • Name of Christ appears 7 times, “Jesus” 14 times, “Lamb” is used of Christ 28 times (7 x 4).

  • 7 x 4: universal scope of the Lamb’s complete victory.

  • “7” denotes completeness in God’s judgment on the entire world.

  • “12”: number of God’s people squared to indicated completeness & multiplied by 1 000 to connote vastness (i.e. 144 000).


  • 5. Start with images that John explains “Lamb” is used of Christ 28 times (7 x 4).

  • a. One like a Son of Man (1:17f; Dan 7 = Israel), here = Jesus (as in the gospels)

  • b. Golden lamp stands (1:20) = 7 churches, and the 7 stars = their messengers

  • c. Great dragon (12:9) = Satan

  • d. 7 heads are 7 hills (17:9) = Rome (cf. 17:18; the great harlot)


  • 6. Key to interpreting symbols: “Lamb” is used of Christ 28 times (7 x 4).

  • a. Note author’s intended use

  • b. Use of symbols in the past

  • c. Theological & pastoral message


  • B. Considering Historical Setting “Lamb” is used of Christ 28 times (7 x 4).

  • 1. Majority hold that written during the time of Domitian.

  • 2. Reality of present & future suffering

  • a. References to suffering within the text

  • (1) 1:9; 2:3, 8-9, 13; 3:10

  • (2) “to the one who overcomes” (2:7, 11, 17, 26; 3:5, 12, 21)



  • b. Examples of those who have/are suffering “Lamb” is used of Christ 28 times (7 x 4).

  • (1) John’s position in exile (1:9)

  • (2) Death of one of their numbers in Pergamum (2:13)

  • c. Admonition in the midst of suffering



  • The “beast” (Rev. 13 & 14) represents the political power of Rome and “harlot” represents Rome’s prosperity gained through economic exploitation.

  • John warns against prostituting oneself with other gods for economic gains.

  • An alternative perspective to Rome’s religious ideology: God is the King

  • c. To warn: the fate of Rome & those who join her


  • Structure & Structural Principles power of Rome and “harlot” represents Rome’s prosperity gained through economic exploitation.

  • A. Poetic

  • B. Drama

  • C. Sevens

  • D. Chiastic

  • E. Liturgy

  • F. Recapitulation or Progressive Parallelism

  • G. Futuristic chronological sequence view


  • Content power of Rome and “harlot” represents Rome’s prosperity gained through economic exploitation.(one approach, note chiasm A – B – C/D/E/F/G – H – I)

  • A. Introduction (ch.1)

  • 1. Prologue (vv.1-8)

  • Prophetic message meant to be read aloud and heard, probably at the liturgies in the churches addressed.

  • Opening divine triad (1:4-5): God, Jesus, 7 spirits


  • 2. Context (vv. 9-20) power of Rome and “harlot” represents Rome’s prosperity gained through economic exploitation.

  • a. Vision of the risen Christ

  • b. Call of John

  • B. The church in the corruption of the old world


  • 7 churches (Rev 2-3) power of Rome and “harlot” represents Rome’s prosperity gained through economic exploitation.


  • (1) Nothing bad is said of Smyrna & Philadelphia power of Rome and “harlot” represents Rome’s prosperity gained through economic exploitation.

  • Nothing good is said of Sardis & Laodicea

  • (2) 3 types of problems confront 7 churches: false teaching (Ephesus, Pergamum, Thyatira); persecution (Smyrna, Philadelphia); complacency (Sardis, Laodicea).

  • (3) reflect the geography & commercial life of the respective city

  • Artemis’s tree shrine contrasts the tree of life


  • Temple of Artemis power of Rome and “harlot” represents Rome’s prosperity gained through economic exploitation.






  • C. Panel 1 cold drinking water of Colossae.Throne in heaven, the authority of the lamb, book with seven seals (ch. 4—8:1)

  • 1. The glory and the splendor of the heavenly throne-room (ch. 4): around which all creation — elders (God’s people) & 4 creatures (all animal life)— worships

  • 2. The slain lamb who alone is worthy receives (ch. 5) & opens his inheritance scroll (ch. 6)


  • 3. Six cold drinking water of Colossae.seals mean judgment for the nations of the world

  • - 1st – 4th (6:1-8): the four horsemen: Rome’s promise of peace ends in death

  • - 5th seal (6:9-11): martyrs cried., “How long?” under the heavenly altar

  • - 6th seal: describes cosmic disturbances as part of God’s punishment


  • Interlude: the midst of this, God’s people (true Israel) will be saved:

  • a. the sealing of the complete number of true Israel = 144000 (with the Spirit) (12 x 12 x 1000)

  • b. = the numberless multitude (x 1000), i.e. old & new Israel, yet reaching out to the whole world (multitude from every nation)

  • 4. 7th seal


  • D. Panel 2 will be saved:Seven trumpets of judgment (8:2—11:19)

  • 1. Six trumpets of judgment upon the nations of the world

  • - 1st – 4th: echoes of Exodus plagues

  • - 5th – 6th: Roman fear of the Barbarians & Parthians


  • Interlude: will be saved:

  • a. the angel with the little scroll warns that when 7th trumpet is sounded, God’s plan promised by the prophets will be fulfilled.

  • b. 2 witnesses: who were they?

  • 2. Seventh trumpet: the consummation: God’s temple in the heavens opened; ark of covenant: earthquakes, hail etc.


  • E. Panel 3 will be saved:Deeper conflict between the church & the dragon & his minions (ch. 12—14:20)

  • 1. History on a cosmic scale: Satan vs. God’s people (ch.12)

  • 2. Two beasts, one from the sea, one from the land (the composite beast & the horned lamb, ch.13)


  • The 1 will be saved:st beast (13:1-10) with 10 horns & 7 heads, symbolizes the power of Rome & its corrupting influence embodied in its emperors.

  • The 2nd beast (one from the earth; 13:11-18) is an evil parody of the Lamb

  • 666?

  • 3. Vindication of those “virgins” (144,000 again) who did not defile themselves with the great harlot Rome.


  • F. Panel 4 will be saved:Seven bowls of plagues of wrath (ch. 15—16:21)

  • 1. God’s crescendo of judgment on Rome & her client kings

  • 2. “Ultimate” image of doom: battle of Armageddon


  • G. Panel 5 will be saved:Final judgments (ch. 17—21:8): The Tale of Two Cities

  • 1. On the Harlot city: seducing the nations, drunk on the blood of the saints.

  • 2. On the beast and the armies of the earth: the true white rider

  • 3. “the Millennium”—after Rome’s destruction, still not over…

  • 4. The New Jerusalem, the garden/city temple …



  • Main Themes will be saved:

  • A. “What was”

  • B. “What is”

  • C. “What will be”

  • 1. The great cosmic drama continues to be played out between the Kingdom of God (as seen in his church) & the State.

  • 2. The State will inflict intense persecution and martyrdom upon the church.


  • 3. God will judge the State for her wickedness and she will be destroyed—earthly conflict being a temporal expression of the eternal one.

  • a. God’s judgments on Rome:

  • (1) Natural calamities

  • (2) Warfare (barbarians and eastern powers)

  • (3) Opportunities for repentance

  • b. Ultimate complete judgment: Christ’s eschatological victory over Satan.


  • D. Merging of the temporal experience of John and the eschatological

  • 1. There is a sense in which Rome and its demonic arrogance merges into an archetypal reality where:

  • a. Babylon = the great world city, the centre of business & trading interests

  • b. The beast = the power of the state

  • c. The Antichrist = particularly demonic human leaders

  • d. Satan = as himself, the one who manipulates all of this to suit himself



  • Rev. 22:17 themselves are all adumbrations of the final eschatological judgment to come.

  • The Spirit and the bride say, “Come.”

  • And let everyone who hears say, “Come.”

  • And let everyone who is thirsty come.

  • Let anyone who wishes take the water of life as a gift come.


  • Implications for Today themselves are all adumbrations of the final eschatological judgment to come.

  • i. Revelation conveys the sovereignty of God

  • “What we see is not what it really is!”

  • ii. High Christology

  • iii. Eschatology  Ethics

  • iv. Reality & severity of evil & the demonic forces


  • Beasley-Murray: “it is ironical that the century which has witnessed the death of the Devil and the Antichrist in theology has experienced the most appalling manifestations of demonic craft (or witchcraft), the most terrible desolation of war, and the most widespread oppression of the Christian faith in all history.”



ad