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M1 Oceanography UE 39, 2008. Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment (Galloway T.S., 2006). Leila Rezazgui & Marta Tomaszkiewicz. 1. Risk assessment. 1.1. Definition. 1.1. Definition. Risk = Hazard x Exposure. Qualitative or quantitative

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Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment (Galloway T.S., 2006)

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Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment galloway t s 2006

M1 Oceanography

UE 39, 2008

Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment(Galloway T.S., 2006)

Leila Rezazgui & Marta Tomaszkiewicz


1 risk assessment

1. Risk assessment

1.1. Definition


1 1 definition

1.1. Definition

Risk = Hazard x Exposure

Qualitative or quantitative

At individual or population level

spatial and temporal scales


1 1 definition1

1. Risk assessment

1.1. Definition

1.2. The aimof risk assessment


Prediction

1.2. The aim risk assessment

Prediction

Early warning

  • Determine limits of exposure

Human health

“Ecosystem health!”


Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment galloway t s 2006

1. Risk assessment

1.1. Definition

1.2. The aim risk assessment

1.3. Procedure


Research

1.3 Procedure

Risk assessment /risk management

RESEARCH

RISK ASSESSMENT

RISK MANAGEMENT

Development of regulatory options

Observations

(laboratory, field)

Hazard

identification

Extrapolation methods

Evaluation of Public, health, economic, social, political consequences of regulatory options

EDRA

Risk-A

Measures,

Characteristics

of populations

Exposure

assessment

Agency decisions and actions

EDRA: Exposure-Dose- Response Assessment

Risk-A: Risk characterization

NAS/NRC, 1983


320 toxic chemicals 60 carcinogens

1.2. The aim of the risk assessment

320 Toxic chemicals60 carcinogens

In the USA

700 Organic chemicals

40 carcinogens

NIEHSs’FYBudget,1998


Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment galloway t s 2006

1. Risk assessment

1.1. Definition

1.2. The aim risk assessment

1.3. Procedure

1.4. Integration of human and environment risk assessment


1 4 integration of human and environment risk assessment

1.4. Integration of human and environment risk assessment

Integration

=

”combine the process of risk estimation for humans, biota and natural resources in one assessment”

WHO, 2001


Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment galloway t s 2006

1.4. Integration of human and environment risk assessment

Suter, et al. 2005


Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment galloway t s 2006

1.4. Integration of human and environment risk assessment

The Two fundamental reasons for integration:

  • improve the quality of assessment through exchanging information between Human health and environment risk assessors.

  • provide more coherent inputs to the decision-making


Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment galloway t s 2006

1. Risk assessment

1.1. Definition

1.2. The aim risk assessment

1.3. Procedure

1.4. Integration of human and environment risk assessment

2. Biomarkers

2.1. Definition


Biomarker

„any biological response to an environmental chemical at the individual level or below demonstrating a departure from normal status”

„indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes

or pharmacological

responses to a therapeutic intervention”

2.1. Definition

BIOMARKER

HUMAN

HEALTH

‘’ENVIRONMENT

HEALTH’’

Peakall,1994

B.D.W.G, 2001


Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment galloway t s 2006

1. Risk assessment

1.1. Definition

1.2. The aim of risk assessment

1.3. Procedure

1.4. Integrationof human and environment risk assessment

2. Biomarkers

2.1. Definition

2.2 Types and role of biomarkers


Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment galloway t s 2006

2.2 Types and role of biomarkers

BIOMARKERS ALWAYS EXPRESSED

at the sub-organismal level

cellular, physiological or behavioural

Moore, et al. 2004


Categories of biomarkers

biologicallyeffective dose

2.2 Types and role of biomarkers

CATEGORIES OF BIOMARKERS

internal dose

susceptibility

early biological

effects

Hulka et al.,1990


Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment galloway t s 2006

1. Risk assessment

1.1. Definition

1.2. The aim of risk assessment

1.3. Procedure

1.4. Integrationof human and environment risk assessment

2. Biomarkers

2.1. Definition

2.2 Types and role of biomarkers

2.3 Examples


Urinary pah metabolites biomarker of internal dose

2.3 Examples

Urinary PAH metabolites(biomarker of internal dose)

  • Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene - sensitive biomarker

    in humans from 1985

  • biomarker in invertebrates?

Ariese et al., 2005

the profile of PAH metabolites is species specific


Biomarker of op pesticide s susceptibility

2.3 Examples

Biomarker of OP pesticides susceptibility

complicated and changing pattern of susceptibility

tolerance

induction

different source

and composition of pollution in environment

HUMANS

INVERTEBRATES


Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment galloway t s 2006

1. Risk assessment

1.1. Definition

1.2. The aim of risk assessment

1.3. Procedure

1.4. Integrationof human and environment risk assessment

2. Biomarkers

2.1. Definition

2.2 Types and role in risk assessment

2.3 Examples

3. Conclusion


Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment galloway t s 2006

3. Conclusion

Focusing on: a single media, a single source, and a single toxic endpoint (paramétres)

Not enough

Need integrated, holistic approach, with multichemical, multimedia, multiroute, and multispecies exposures


Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment galloway t s 2006

3. Conclusion

Integration

Appealing (séduisante) and really important But:

  • Protection of humans isn't inevitably a result of protection of nonhuman organisms and ecosystems

  • Nonhuman may be more exposed or more sensitive than humans .


Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment galloway t s 2006

3. Conclusion

Radical selection of biomarkers

Exchange with different disciplines

Cooperation between the human and

environmental risk assessments

Owenet al, 2008


Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment galloway t s 2006

3. Conclusion

complexity of ecosystems

unique biology of the

individual

Honesty transparency

and communication


References

REFERENCES

Aas E., Beyer J., Jonsson G., Reichert W.L., Andersen O.K., 2001, Evidence of uptake, biotransformation and DNA binding of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in Atlantic cod and corkwing wrasse caught in the vicinity of an aluminium works, Marine Environmental Research, 52: 213-229

Ariese F., Beyer J., Wells D, 2005, Two fish bile reference materials certified for PAH metabolites. Journal of environmental Monitoring, 7: 869 – 876

Eason C., O’Halloran K., 2002,, Biomarkers in toxicology versus ecological risk assessment, Toxicology 181-182: 517-521

Galloway T.S., Brown R.J., Browne M.A., Dissanayake A., Lowe D., Jones M.B., Depledge M.H., 2004, Ecosystem management bioindicators: the ECOMAN project – a multi-biomarker approach to ecosystem management. Marine Environmental Research 58: 233–237

Galloway T.S.,Millward N.,Browne M.A., Depledge M.H., 2002, Rapid assessment of organophosphorous/carbamateexposure in the bivalve mollusc Mytilus edulis using combined esterase activities as biomarkers, Aquatic Toxicology 61: 169–180

Hyne R.V., Maher W.A., 2003, Invertebrate biomarkers: links to toxicosis that predict

population decline, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 54: 366–374

Jongeneelen F., J., 1997,Methods for routine biological monitoring of carcinogenicPAH-mixtures, The Science of the Total Environment 199: 141-149

Moore M. N., Depledge M. H., Readman J. W., Leonard D.R.P., 2004, An integrated biomarker-based strategy for ecotoxicological evaluation of risk in environmental management. Mutation Research, 552: 247–268


Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment galloway t s 2006

REFERENCES

Omenn G.S., M.D. 2006. PUBLIC COMMENT ON OMB DRAFT RISK ASSESSMENT BULLETIN. National Research Council Public Meeting.

Owen R.,Galloway T.S, Hagger J.A.,Jones M.B.,Depledge M.H.2008. Biomarkers and environmental risk assessment: Guiding principles from the human health field. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56: 613–619

Schlenk D., 1999, Necessity of defining Biomarkers for Use in Ecological Risk Assessments, Marine Pollution Bulletin 39: 48-53

Suter G.W., Vermeire T., Munns W.R., Jun Sekizaw, 2005,, An integrated framework for health and ecological risk assessment, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology207: S611 – S616

Vainio H., 2001, Use of biomarkers in risk assessment, International Journalof Hygiene and Environmental Health

Van Leeuwen, C.J. and J.L.M. Hermens, Eds. 1995. Risk Assessment of Chemicals: AnIntroduction. Kluwer Academic Pub., Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11811&page=13

http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/xmlreport.display?deid=15200&z_chk=63298

http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/new_issues/ira/en/print.html

http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/new_issues/ira/en/print.html

www.google.com


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