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The following lecture has been approved for University Undergraduate Students This lecture may contain information, ideas, concepts and discursive anecdotes that may be thought provoking and challenging It is not intended for the content or delivery to cause offence

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The following lecture has been approved for

University Undergraduate Students

This lecture may contain information, ideas, concepts and discursive anecdotes that may be thought provoking and challenging

It is not intended for the content or delivery to cause offence

Any issues raised in the lecture may require the viewer to engage in further thought, insight, reflection or critical evaluation


Occupational

Health

Promotion

Stopping people from

being made ill

by the work they do

Prof. Craig Jackson

Head of Psychology Division

BCU


A Truth

“Peoples’ health should be no worse at the end of a working day than it was at the start”

M.J. Harrington (1997)


A Truth

“People who work sitting down get paid more than people who work standing up”

Ogden Nash (1902 - 1971)


“When you come to a patient’s house, you should ask him what sort of pains he has, what caused them, how many days he has been ill, whether the bowels are working and what sort of food he eats. So says Hippocrates.

I may venture to add one more question: what occupation does he follow? ”

Bernard Ramazinni

(1633-1714)


History of Occupational Illness

Stone-age was first age of occupational risk

Iron-age and smelting worsened this

Mining in Egyptian period: worse job going

Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714). DeMorbis Artificium

Industrial Revolution UK.

Factory Act. 1802

Annie Bessant. Matchworkers

Sir Thomas Legge (1863 – 1932) 1st Inspector of Factories


10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

% returning to work

<1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

months not working

  • Return to Work

  • Longer off work = Less likely to return to work

Waddell, 1994



Work Related Ill-Health in the UK

33 Million days lost per year

Males lose more working days than females

Days lost increase with age

Low managerial / professionals had highest rate of absence

Most sickly occupations are health & social welfare, construction, teaching,

and research


Work Related Ill-Health in the UK

Bakers appear highly with occupational asthma

Metal workers appear highly with upper limb problems

Mesothelioma deaths high in shipbuilders and asbestos workers

Stress, depression and anxiety highest in:

Public admin.

Defence

Education

Health work

Social work



Occupational Health Promotion

Pre-employment screening

Health Surveillance

Health & Wellbeing Promotion


1) Pre-Employment Screening

Ensure new employee….

… is fit to work

… has no pre-existing health conditions that could pre-dispose him/her…

… and increase risk of occupational disease / injury

If health problem or pre-disposition is found, work with the employee to still

allow them to take the job:

1) Eliminate Risk

2) Reduce Risk

3) Control Risk


2) Health Surveillance

Routine medicals / examination of employer

and / or

Routine collection of data

Ensure the current employee….

… is still fit to work

… that pre-existing health conditions have not increased risk of occupational

disease / injury


3) Health and Wellbeing Promotion

Ensuring ways of working are engineered to optimize health

1/3 of lifetime spent working

Ideal environment to “educate” the population

Stop smoking clinics

Healthy eating

Diet advice

Exercise clubs

Gym memberships

Ergonomic design and planning


Core Occupational Diseases (EU)

Chemical Chemical Biological Physical Physical

Inorganic Organic Dusts Others

Cadmium CS5 Zoonoses Asbestos Radiation

Chromium Benzene Hepatitis Silica(te) NIHL

Mercury Chlorine TB Mesothelioma Cataract

Manganese Aromatics Vibration

Nickel P.aromatics Dermatitis

Lead Isocyanates







  • 21st Century Workplaces

  • Global companies and operations

  • Leaner & Meaner managers

  • Gender issues

  • Disability issues

  • Migrant issues

  • Longer & less fixed working hours

  • Shorter contracts

  • Dirty jobs out-sourced


21st Century Workplaces


  • The World of Work and People

  • More complex

  • Illness + Disease Focused

  • Health & Safety Obsessed

  • Market-forces Dominated

  • Quality Management Driven

  • SMEs Predominant

  • Mass production

  • Low Skills or Training required = low pay


Current Sources of Occupational Ill-Health

Chemicals

Gasses

Dusts

Particles

Light

Heat

Noise

Vibration

Stress

Radiation

Slips, trips, falls

Working hours

Ergonomics


Top 5 Modern Day Occupational Health Problems

Hearing Loss (NIHL, TTS) Industry, Drivers, Emergency work

Respiratory Problems Asbestos, Industry, Recycling

Skin Problems Nurse, Hairdressers, Industry

Mental Health / Stress / Anxiety Office workers

Musculoskeletal problems Office, Drivers, Industry, Construction


Work Related Ill-Health in the UK

MSDs and Stress show little change since 2002

Mesothelioma deaths and Asbestosis slowly rise

Asthma and Contact Dermatitis show little change

Occupational infections high in 2002 – diarrhoeal disease

Occupational Deafness slowly declining


  • The New Millennium – The Existential Age

  • Stress

  • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

  • Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

  • Diffuse Pain Syndromes (RSI, MSD, WI)

  • Non-Specific Effect Modifiers

  • Psycho-Immunology



  • So what of Birmingham. . . ?

  • Local Industries

  • Local populations

  • Biggest Local Health Problems

  • Any Complicating / Confounding Factors?

  • What is Birmingham famous for?

  • What has Birmingham achieved?

  • Occ Ill-Health in your family?




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