Cell physiology neuron
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CELL PHYSIOLOGY (Neuron). ANATOMY OF A SYNAPSE (Synaptic Knob and Motor End Plate). CELL MEMBRANE. ACTION POTENTIAL. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sensorimotor cortex Basal ganglia Cerebellum Brain stem Spinal cord Pyramidal tract Extrapyramidal tract. TYPES OF NEURONS.

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CELL PHYSIOLOGY (Neuron)

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Cell physiology neuron

CELL PHYSIOLOGY (Neuron)

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Anatomy of a synapse synaptic knob and motor end plate

ANATOMY OF A SYNAPSE(Synaptic Knob and Motor End Plate)

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Cell membrane

CELL MEMBRANE

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Action potential

ACTION POTENTIAL

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Central nervous system

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • Sensorimotor cortex

  • Basal ganglia

  • Cerebellum

  • Brain stem

  • Spinal cord

    • Pyramidal tract

    • Extrapyramidal tract

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Types of neurons

TYPES OF NEURONS

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Sarcoplasmic reticulum

SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM

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Excitation contraction sequence 1

EXCITATION-CONTRACTION SEQUENCE #1

  • AP moves down neuron

  • Release of ACH across synapse, receptor

  • Motor end plate P → muscle action P

  • SR releases Ca++ into filaments

  • Inhibits troponin

  • ATP split: ATP∙M → ADP∙Pi∙M

  • A M bonding: ADP∙Pi∙M → A-M∙ADP∙Pi

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Excitation contraction sequence 2

EXCITATION-CONTRACTION SEQUENCE #2

  • ATP split completely leaving bridge

    A-M∙ADP∙Pi → A-M + ADP + Pi

  • Break AM bond with fresh ATP

    A-M + ATP → A + M∙ATP

  • Myosin advances to next actin, repeat

  • Relaxation, Ca++ released from troponin

  • Ca++ back into SR using ATP

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Motor unit recruitment

MOTOR UNIT RECRUITMENT

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Motor unit characteristics

MOTOR UNIT CHARACTERISTICS

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Twitch and tetanus

TWITCH AND TETANUS

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Length tension relationship active

LENGTH-TENSIONRELATIONSHIP (Active)

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Length tension relationship passive

LENGTH-TENSIONRELATIONSHIP (Passive)

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Length tension relationship combined

LENGTH-TENSIONRELATIONSHIP (Combined)

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Velocity tension relationship

VELOCITY-TENSION RELATIONSHIP

  • Concentric

  • Eccentric

  • Isometric

  • ↓ bonding

  • Damping

  • Peak power = ⅓ vmax

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Types of contractions

TYPES OF CONTRACTIONS

  • Static (Isometric) = constant muscle length

  • Dynamic = muscle length changes

    • Concentric = muscle shortens

    • Eccentric = muscle lengthens

    • Isotonic = constant external force

    • Isokinetic = constant velocity

    • Isoinertial = constant acceleration

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Quick release experiments 1 defines active state

QUICK RELEASE EXPERIMENTS(#1 - Defines Active State)

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Quick release experiments 2 series elastic component

QUICK RELEASE EXPERIMENTS(#2 – Series Elastic Component)

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Hill s 4 element model

HILL’S 4-ELEMENT MODEL

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Endurance curves

ENDURANCE CURVES

  • Voluntary hold

  • Static contraction

  • Occlusion of blood flow

  • Rapid fatigue

  • T = 1236 - 72.5

    (%MVC-15)0.618

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