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BIOFERTILIZERS. NITROGEN-FIXERS. Addition of Nitrogen to the soil Chemical fertilizers Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) Chemical fertilizers: Pollution & soil contamination So, Biofertilizers / “Microbial inoculants” 100% natural and organic .

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biofertilizers

BIOFERTILIZERS

NITROGEN-FIXERS

slide2
Addition of Nitrogen to the soil
    • Chemical fertilizers
    • Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF)
  • Chemical fertilizers: Pollution & soil contamination
  • So, Biofertilizers / “Microbial inoculants”
  • 100% natural and organic
slide3
A large population of a specific / group of beneficial microorganisms for enhancing the productivity of soil either
    • by fixing atmospheric nitrogen or by solubilising soil phosphorus or
    • by stimulating plant growth through synthesis of growth promoting substances.
  • Main sources: Bacteria, fungi & cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)
  • Symbiotic relationship with plants
slide4
End product of the various phases of Biodigestion has humus in it. 
  • Pure Biofertilizer, and it can be
    • Used on soil as a high quality organic fertilizer
    • Used as a corrector of pH
    • Has a high nutrient concentration and can be used directly over soil before planting.
  • Diluted Biofertilizer.
slide5
Soil microbes used in biofertilizers are:
    • Phosphate Solubilizing microbes,
    • Mycorrhizae,
    • Azospirillum,
    • Azotobacter,
    • Rhizobium,
    • Sesbania,
    • Blue Green Algae, and
    • Azolla.
phosphate solubilizing microbes
Phosphate-solubilizing Microbes:
  • Phosphorus, important nutrient for plants
  • Microbes that can solubilize the cheaper sources of P – as rock phosphate.
    • Bacteria – Pseudomonas striata & Bacillus megaterium
    • Fungi – Aspergillus & Penicillium
slide7
By secretion of organic acids
  • Also, releases soluble Pi into soil through decomposition of phosphate-rich organic compounds.
  • Usually, microbes inoculated to coffee husk along with rock phosphate while preparing compost.
mycorrhizae
Mycorrhizae
  • Refers to fungus associated with plant roots.
  • 2 types:
    • Ectotrophic and
    • Endotrophic
slide9
Important for adequate uptake of immobile ions such as phosphate, zinc and micronutrients
  • Stimulates branching of the root
  • Increases the absorption surface of the root.
  • Tolerance to drought, high soil temperature, soil toxins, and extreme pH levels
  • Protection against root pathogens
azopirillum
Azopirillum
  • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria that lives in a symbiotic relationship in the root cortex of several tropical crops
  • Stimulate plant growth through N2 fixation
  • Helps in production of growth substances like auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins.
  • 10-15% of the required N2 is met by Azospirillum biofertilizer.
azotobacter
Azotobacter
  • Triple action
  • Free-living, N2-fixing bacteria
  • Produces several plant growth promoting substances.
  • Protects plants against pathogenic microbes either by discouraging their growth or by destroying them – BIOCONTROL.
slide13
Gram negative, motile, non-sporulating rods.
  • Forms root nodules in leguminous plants (Fabaceae) & fix atmospheric N2 (diazotrophy) in a symbiotic association
slide14
Legumes: Peas, beans, clover, and soy
  • Rhizobia enter a root hair and travel down a tube to a relatively anoxic centre of the root hair cell.
  • Here, proliferating plant cells form a nodule.
  • Bacteria differentiate into bacteroids
  • Fixes N2 from atmosphere into a plant usable form, ammonium (NH4+), utilising the enzyme nitrogenase
  • Plant supplies carbohydrates, proteins, sufficient O2, malate and succinate to bacteria
sesbania1
Sesbania
  • A genus from the family Fabaceae with some aquatic species
  • A green manure plant which forms both root and stem nodules in association with rhizobium and so, fixes more atmospheric N2
  • Produce 10 times more nodules than other legumes
  • Have a very high capacity to fix atmospheric N2
slide17
Grown & turned into the soil while still green to enrich soil N2
    • Enriches concentration of Ca, P, S & micronutrients.
  • Notable species
    • Rattlebox (Sesbania drummondii),
    • Spiny Sesbania (Sesbania bispinosa), and
    • Sesbania grandiflora (an edible plant)
blue green algae
Blue Green Algae
  • or Cyanobacteria
  • Can carry out both photosynthesis as well as N2 fixation
  • Algal flakes are grown & then broadcasted.
slide20
Mosquito fern / Duckweed fern / Fairy moss / Water fern)
  • A genus of 7 species of aquatic ferns
  • A floating fern, harbouring a blue green algae in its leaf cavities.
  • Form a symbiotic relationship with the blue-green alga Anabaena azollae, that fixes atmospheric N2
  • Can grow at great speed - doubling its biomass every 2-3 days
  • Then, harvested, dried and used as biofertilizer