The transformation of the west 1450 1750
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The Transformation of the West 1450 - 1750. Chapter 16. A New Era. 1450-1750 = Early Modern Period Science important More secular, less religious Nation-states begin to evolve. Sequence of developments: 1. Renaissance 2. Protestant Reformation 3. absolute monarchy 4. Enlightenment.

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The Transformation of the West 1450 - 1750

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The transformation of the west 1450 1750

The Transformation of the West 1450 - 1750

Chapter 16


A new era

A New Era

  • 1450-1750 = Early Modern Period

  • Science important

  • More secular, less religious

  • Nation-states begin to evolve

  • Sequence of developments:

    1. Renaissance

    2. Protestant Reformation

    3. absolute monarchy

    4. Enlightenment


Renaissance

Renaissance

  • Challenged medieval values & styles

  • Largely an artistic movement

  • Began in Italy

  • New ideas of political organization

  • More commercialized economy

  • 2 phases: southern & northern

  • 15th century Italians in the Renaissance:

  • Michelangelo

  • Leonardo da Vinci

  • Raphael

  • Donatello

  • NiccoloMachiavelli: THE PRINCE


The transformation of the west 1450 1750

Michelangelo

Da Vinci

Raphael


Humanism change

Humanism & Change

  • Humanism: focus on humanity as center of intellectual & artistic endeavors

  • Northern humanists focused more on religion than southern (Italian) humanists

  • Merchants improved banking techniques

  • Became more capitalist

  • Experimented with new political forms & functions

  • Exchange of ambassadors & diplomacy between city-states


New tools practices

New Tools, Practices

  • Gutenberg invented movable type (in the west)

  • German

  • “Gutenberg Bibles”

  • Spread ideas of the Reformation and scientific discovery

  • Agriculture:

  • New technology

  • Better stock-breeding methods

  • Higher production

  • Rapidly growing population


The transformation of the west 1450 1750

European Population Density, c. 1600


Family

Family

  • Nuclear families

  • Late marriage ages

  • Age of marriage determined by access to real property

  • By 1500s, most Europeans married at age 28-29

  • Freer movement, greater interaction for young children came from ideas of the Enlightenment


Protestant reformation

Protestant Reformation

  • Martin Luther, German priest

  • Protested sale of indulgences

  • Salvation through faith

  • Bibles in local languages necessary

  • Against required celibacy

  • Support by German princes increased independence from control by the emperor

  • Could control local churches

  • Could seize church lands

  • Common people supported Lutheranism

  • Sanctioned money-making (Catholicism did not)


New protestant churches

New Protestant Churches

  • Henry VIII – English monarch

  • Established Anglican church

  • Religious/political turmoil for/by his children

  • Created new colonies in the Americas for religious freedom

  • Jean (John) Calvin – predestination

  • Wanted participation of all believers in church administration = wider access to government


The transformation of the west 1450 1750

Western Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation


Aftermath of reformation

Aftermath of Reformation

  • Catholic Reformation

  • Jesuits = new religious order

  • Edict of Nantes = France 1598

  • Granted tolerance to Protestants

  • Helped end French civil wars of religion

  • Wars helped gain acceptance of the idea of religious pluralism


The transformation of the west 1450 1750

War

  • Thirty Years War

  • Reduced German power & prosperity & population

  • Political independence in the Protestant Netherlands

  • Territorial toleration established

  • Spain lost power after religious wars


Commercial revolution

Commercial Revolution

  • More imports of American bullion

  • Formation of great trading companies

  • Growing manufacturing, especially household production of textiles & metal products (by rural workers, besides farming)

  • Higher prices/inflation

  • New goods on the market

  • Average western peasant or artisan owned about 5 times more “things” than easterners

  • Produced a group without access to producing property: proletariat


Science

Science

  • Copernicus: used observation & calculation to determine order of the universe, different from Hellenistic theory

  • Harvey: circular movement of blood

  • Isaac Newton: Principia Mathematica

  • Deists: possibility of god, but set natural laws in motion & left it


Rulers government

Rulers, Government

  • Absolute monarchy:

  • Had a pro army

  • Stopped parliamentary governments; used councils for advice

  • Growing bureaucracy

  • Constant warfare among monarchs

  • Louis XIV of France

  • Also in Prussia

  • Britain did not follow absolute monarchy (though king had power through divine right) & kept Parliament

  • Frederick the Great of Prussia: enlightened despotism


The transformation of the west 1450 1750

Europe under Absolute Monarchy, 1715


Merchantilism

Merchantilism

  • Mercantilism: government should promote the internal economy to improve tax revenues & should limit imports


New ideas in the 18 th century

New Ideas in the 18th Century

  • Enlightenment: new intellectual movement of 18th century

  • Caused by Scientific Revolution (caused by Renaissance)

  • Focus on improvements in material, social life

  • Religious toleration

  • Humans are naturally good, could be better

  • Humans behave by natural laws, based on reason

  • Humans do not respond to control

  • Adam Smith: advocated that governments should avoid regulation in favor of the operation of individual initiative and market forces


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