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The 19th century telecommunications Telegraph - Telephone Digital vs. analog communications The voice networks & the data networks The electronics revolution (1960-1980) Digital sound Mainframe computers with remote access The first unification : ISDN Local area networks

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Contents

The 19th century telecommunications

Telegraph - Telephone

Digital vs. analog communications

The voice networks & the data networks

The electronics revolution (1960-1980)

Digital sound

Mainframe computers with remote access

The first unification : ISDN

Local area networks

Wide area and local area networks integration

The Internet

The research project

The universal computer communications medium

The successful unification ?

Contents


The electronics revolution 1970 1980

Integrated circuits (“chips”) make electronics affordable.

Mainframe computers become very powerful

Mini & microcomputers become very popular

Digital techniques offer better price/performance for sound applications

The Electronics Revolution(1970-1980)


Music records

Music Records

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Digital (CD)

(44100 measurements/s)

Analog


Records with a scratch

Records with a scratch

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Analog

Digital (CD)


Remote computers access 1970

Mainframe Computer

Remote Computers Access(1970)

Star Network

Dumb Terminals


I s d n the first attempt to integrate voice and data

Integrated Services Digital Network

Voice digitized at 64 Kb/s (8000 samples/s, 8 bit)

Truly digital signaling

A telephone connection = a 64 Kb/s digital link

A 64 Kb/s digital link is excellent for connecting a terminal to a mainframe computer

Connection time billing inadequate for data

ISDN widely used for telephony

ISDN marginal for data applications

I S D NThe first attempt to integrate voice and data


Local area networks 1970

Local Area Networks(1970)

  • LAN’s initially introduced for

    • Printer sharing

    • File sharing

    • ...


The dual screen desk 1980

LAN

WAN

LAN

The Dual Screen Desk(1980)


Lan wan integration 1990

WAN

LAN

LAN

LAN

LAN-WAN Integration(1990)


Client server systems

Client - Server Systems

Interconnection Network (LANs+WAN)


Client server systems benefits

Sharing of storage

Access to common data

Professional back-up facilities

Centralized software (& data) maintenance

Sharing of processing power

Unloading of central servers

Supporting local clients for exceptional needs

Sharing of expensive peripherals

Client - Server SystemsBenefits


Terminal emulation sub minimal client server system

The personal workstations are used

as stand alone computers

as terminals connected to other computers

The user has to mentally switch between widely different user interfaces and operating systems.

Transferring data between local and remote applications is far from trivial

Terminal emulation is very user unfriendly !!!

Terminal Emulation= sub-minimal Client-server system


Virtual mainframe true client server system

The users interface of all applications runs on the personal workstations.

For some applications, the workstation requests help from specialized servers. The user remains unaware of such requests.

Servers can be optimized for specific tasks

Virtual Mainframes can be

Very user friendly

cost effective

Virtual Mainframe= true Client-Server system


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