Burrowing nematode
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Burrowing Nematode. Etymology. Radopholus radix = root; phelien = to love Burrowing Makes extensive cavities inside the roots. Historical. First observed by Cobb 1890-91 in Fiji on banana 1915 – Provided complete description of the species under the name Tylenchus similis

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Burrowing Nematode

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Burrowing Nematode

Walia CCSHAU


Etymology

  • Radopholus

    • radix = root; phelien = to love

  • Burrowing

    • Makes extensive cavities inside the roots

Walia CCSHAU


Historical

  • First observed by Cobb 1890-91 in Fiji on banana

  • 1915 – Provided complete description of the species under the name Tylenchussimilis

  • 1949 – Thorne created new genus Radopholus

  • Came into prominence in 1953

    • Causal organism of Spreading decline of citrus in Florida

    • Causal organism if Pepper Yellows disease in Bangka islands in Indonesia

Walia CCSHAU


Systematic Position

Walia CCSHAU


Diagnostic Characters

  • Female

    • Vermiform, 0.5-0.8 mm long. Lip region low, set off; spear strong with well developed basal knobs; oesophageal glands overlapping intestine dorsally; ovaries 2, vulva median; tail conoid to blunt with rounded terminus.

  • Male

    • Spear very slender with tiny knobs, oesophagus reduced; bursa extending up to 2/3 of the tail.

Walia CCSHAU


Diagnosis

Walia CCSHAU


Economically Important Species, Hosts and Distribution

  • Radopholussimilis

    • Distribution

      • Widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical throughout the world

      • Africa, Central and South America, Australia, New Zealand, South and South-East Asia

      • India - Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Tripura

    • Hosts

      • Host range very wide

      • Problem on Banana, pepper, coffee, tea, cocoa, coconut, arecanut, sugarcane, turmeric, ginger

  • Radopholuscitrophilus

    • Confined to Florida (USA); problem on citrus

Walia CCSHAU


Biology

  • Migratory endoparasite

    • All stages (except males) infective

    • Confined to cortex

      • Migration – intercellular

      • Oviposition – scattered

      • Life cycle takes 4-5 weeks at 25-30 C

    • Migrated from roots to daughter rhizomes/suckers

    • May leave roots and come out in soil for re-infection

    • Can survive in soil for 6 months without host

Walia CCSHAU


Migration - Intercellular

Walia CCSHAU


Biology

  • Races

  • Spread

    • R. similis

    • Spreads with infected suckers

    • In Honduras spreads @ 2.5 m per year in banana

    • R. citrophilus

    • Spreads very fast in citrus groves in Florida

    • Spreads @ 1.6 trees per year

    • Occurs deep – between 0.3 to 1.8 m, may be present up to 4 m deep

Walia CCSHAU


Radopholussimilison banana

  • Name of the disease

    • Blackhead, Banana decline, Rhizome rot, Banana root rot, Toppling disease, Panama wilt

  • Symptoms

    • Above-ground

      • Yellowing of outer whorl of leaves, spreads to inner whorls, withering of foliage and fruit bunches, death of plants

    • Below-ground

      • Reddish brown lesions, enlarge, coalesce, rotting

      • Devoid of laterals, root system drastically reduced

      • Poor anchorage to soil leads to toppling over of plants laden with fruits

      • Rotting extends to rhizomes

Walia CCSHAU


Banana decline

Walia CCSHAU


Toppling over

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Extensive necrosis

Walia CCSHAU


Infected rhizome

Walia CCSHAU


Rhizome rot in Ginger

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Radopholussimilison banana

  • Histopathology

    • Necrosis and cavity formation in cortex

    • Cavities coalesce and break down to form tunnels

    • Cracks appear on root surface due to tunnels within 3-4 weeks

  • Interaction with other pathogens

    • Panama Wilt

      • R. similis+ Fusariumoxysporumf. sp. cubense

      • Wilt incidence enhances and pre-pones

      • Breakdown of resistance in Lacatan bananas

Walia CCSHAU


R. similis- Histopathology

Walia CCSHAU


R. similis- Histopathology

Walia CCSHAU


R. similis- Histopathology

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Radopholussimilison banana

  • Management

    • Disinfection of infected rhizomes

      • Paring

      • Paring + Pralinage

        • Application of Bordeaux mixture on cut surfaces

          • Hydrated lime – 20 kg

          • Copper sulphate – 20 kg

          • 70% DBCP – 1288 ml

          • Water – 455 lts

      • Paring + Hot water treatment

        • 53-55 C for 20-25 min

      • Paring + Nematicidal coating

        • Pared sets dip in mud slurry, sprinkle carbofuran granules on surface @ 1.2 g a.i./rhizome

    • Fallowing and Flooding

Walia CCSHAU


Infected sucker

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Radopholussimilison Black pepper

  • Name of disease

    • Yellows disease of pepper vine

  • Symptoms

    • Yellowing of few leaves, extends to entire vine

    • Complete defoliation

    • Berry production ceases, vine becomes unproductive

    • Death of the vine

    • Out of 22 million vines planted in Indonesia, 20 million died within 20 years

    • Roots devoid of laterals

    • Extensive necrosis of main roots

  • Management

    • Application of fensulfothion @ 4-8 kg a.i./ha at nursery stage

Walia CCSHAU


R. citrophiluson Citrus

  • Name of disease

    • Spreading decline

    • Confined to Florida, USA

  • Symptoms

    • Above-ground – Dieback, spreads fast in groves

    • Below-ground – Extensive necrosis on roots

  • Management

    • Domestic/International quarantine

    • Phytosanitory inspection of nurseries, groves

    • Treatment of buffer zones with fumigants

Walia CCSHAU


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