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Bell Work. What charges will each of the following have as ions?. Br S Mg Ba I Al Sr N P B. Physical Science – Lecture 39. Bonding. Octet Rule. All elements want 8 electrons in their outer shell. They want 8 valence electrons to be complete.

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Bell work

Bell Work

  • What charges will each of the following have as ions?

Br

S

Mg

Ba

I

Al

Sr

N

P

B


Physical science lecture 39

Physical Science – Lecture 39

Bonding


Octet rule

Octet Rule

  • All elements want 8 electrons in their outer shell.

  • They want 8 valence electrons to be complete.

  • Elements want valence electrons equal to noble gases (group 8A)

  • Only exception – Hydrogen and Helium only want 2.


Becoming a noble gas

Becoming a Noble Gas

  • Elements can lose or gain electrons to become “noble like”.

  • Loss of electrons = cation (+ charge)

  • Gain of electrons = anion (- charge)


Cations

Cations

  • Elements lose electrons to become positive

  • Positive charge comes from an abundance of protons.

  • For every electron lost, elements becomes +1.


Anions

Anions

  • Elements gain electrons to become negative

  • Negative charge comes from an abundance of electrons.

  • For every electron gained, elements becomes -1.


Two types of bonding 1

Two types of Bonding - 1

  • Covalent – between two non-metals. They share electrons.

  • Two non-metals will share electrons to make them both think that they have a full outer shell.


Bonding covalent

Bonding - Covalent


Forming covalent compounds

Forming Covalent Compounds

  • When elements covalently bond, they are given special names to designate how many of each element is present.


Covalent bonding

Covalent Bonding

  • Formed between two non-metals.

  • Neither atom is "strong" enough to steal electrons from the other.

  • Instead, they share their electrons from outer molecular orbit with others to feel complete (8).


Covalent bonding1

Covalent Bonding

  • Elements can form single bonds, double bonds, or triple bonds with other elements.

  • Bonds are represented with line drawn between two elements.


Single bond

Single Bond

  • Two electrons are shared between elements


Double bond

Double Bond

  • Four electrons are shared between elements


Triple bond

Triple Bond

  • Six electrons are shared between elements


Counting to 8

Counting to 8

  • Each pair of electrons (lone pair) counts as 2 electrons toward the total of 8 for the element they are attached to.

  • Each covalent bond (line) counts as 2 electrons for each element they are attached to.

  • Everyone still wants 8.


Types of bonding 2

Types of Bonding - 2

  • Ionic – between a metal and a non-metal or a cation and an anion. They steal or give away electrons to each other.

  • A metal will give its electrons to a non-metal to have a completed octet in the octet below its valence shell (becoming a cation).

  • A non-metal will take electrons from a metal to fulfill its outer valence shell (becoming an anion).


Lone pairs

Lone Pairs

  • Electrons not involved in the bond are called “lone pairs”.

  • Lone pairs consist of two electrons.


Ionic bonding

Ionic Bonding

  • Ionic bond - type of bond formed between cations and anions.

  • Mostly formed between metals and non-metals.

  • Non-metals are more electronegative and steal the metals electrons.


Bonding ionic

Bonding - Ionic


Ionic bonding1

Ionic Bonding

  • Na does not have 8 electrons in its outer shell, it has none.

  • It gave away electrons. It did not share.


Ionic bonding2

Ionic Bonding

  • Metals NEVER keep their electrons!

  • They always give them away to non-metals.

  • They NEVER share!


Forming ionic compounds

Forming Ionic Compounds

  • Ionic compounds come from ions.

  • The charges cancel out

  • The cation (positive charged element) is written first in the formula.

  • The anion is always written second.


Examples

Examples

  • Ca2+ and SO42-

  • Br- and Na+

  • K+ and O2-


Can 3 cl form a covalent bond with p

Can 3 Cl form a Covalent bond with P?

  • What type of bond will they form?

  • Do they have enough electrons to make them each feel like they have 8?


What is the structure for water

What is the structure for Water?


What about c and four f

What about C and four F?


What about ca and 2 cl

What about Ca and 2 Cl?


What about 2 cl

What about 2 Cl?


What about o bonded to o

What about O bonded to O?


Double bonds

Double Bonds


What about n bonded to n

What about N bonded to N?


Bell work 3818484

CH4


Practice

Practice


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NH3


Babr 2

BaBr2


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SH2


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S2


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