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Bell Work. What charges will each of the following have as ions?. Br S Mg Ba I Al Sr N P B. Physical Science – Lecture 39. Bonding. Octet Rule. All elements want 8 electrons in their outer shell. They want 8 valence electrons to be complete.

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Bell work
Bell Work

  • What charges will each of the following have as ions?

Br

S

Mg

Ba

I

Al

Sr

N

P

B



Octet rule
Octet Rule

  • All elements want 8 electrons in their outer shell.

  • They want 8 valence electrons to be complete.

  • Elements want valence electrons equal to noble gases (group 8A)

  • Only exception – Hydrogen and Helium only want 2.


Becoming a noble gas
Becoming a Noble Gas

  • Elements can lose or gain electrons to become “noble like”.

  • Loss of electrons = cation (+ charge)

  • Gain of electrons = anion (- charge)


Cations
Cations

  • Elements lose electrons to become positive

  • Positive charge comes from an abundance of protons.

  • For every electron lost, elements becomes +1.


Anions
Anions

  • Elements gain electrons to become negative

  • Negative charge comes from an abundance of electrons.

  • For every electron gained, elements becomes -1.


Two types of bonding 1
Two types of Bonding - 1

  • Covalent – between two non-metals. They share electrons.

  • Two non-metals will share electrons to make them both think that they have a full outer shell.



Forming covalent compounds
Forming Covalent Compounds

  • When elements covalently bond, they are given special names to designate how many of each element is present.


Covalent bonding
Covalent Bonding

  • Formed between two non-metals.

  • Neither atom is "strong" enough to steal electrons from the other.

  • Instead, they share their electrons from outer molecular orbit with others to feel complete (8).


Covalent bonding1
Covalent Bonding

  • Elements can form single bonds, double bonds, or triple bonds with other elements.

  • Bonds are represented with line drawn between two elements.


Single bond
Single Bond

  • Two electrons are shared between elements


Double bond
Double Bond

  • Four electrons are shared between elements


Triple bond
Triple Bond

  • Six electrons are shared between elements


Counting to 8
Counting to 8

  • Each pair of electrons (lone pair) counts as 2 electrons toward the total of 8 for the element they are attached to.

  • Each covalent bond (line) counts as 2 electrons for each element they are attached to.

  • Everyone still wants 8.


Types of bonding 2
Types of Bonding - 2

  • Ionic – between a metal and a non-metal or a cation and an anion. They steal or give away electrons to each other.

  • A metal will give its electrons to a non-metal to have a completed octet in the octet below its valence shell (becoming a cation).

  • A non-metal will take electrons from a metal to fulfill its outer valence shell (becoming an anion).


Lone pairs
Lone Pairs

  • Electrons not involved in the bond are called “lone pairs”.

  • Lone pairs consist of two electrons.


Ionic bonding
Ionic Bonding

  • Ionic bond - type of bond formed between cations and anions.

  • Mostly formed between metals and non-metals.

  • Non-metals are more electronegative and steal the metals electrons.



Ionic bonding1
Ionic Bonding

  • Na does not have 8 electrons in its outer shell, it has none.

  • It gave away electrons. It did not share.


Ionic bonding2
Ionic Bonding

  • Metals NEVER keep their electrons!

  • They always give them away to non-metals.

  • They NEVER share!


Forming ionic compounds
Forming Ionic Compounds

  • Ionic compounds come from ions.

  • The charges cancel out

  • The cation (positive charged element) is written first in the formula.

  • The anion is always written second.


Examples
Examples

  • Ca2+ and SO42-

  • Br- and Na+

  • K+ and O2-


Can 3 cl form a covalent bond with p
Can 3 Cl form a Covalent bond with P?

  • What type of bond will they form?

  • Do they have enough electrons to make them each feel like they have 8?









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CH4



Bell work 3818484
NH3



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SH2


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S2


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