africa in the age of the atlantic slave trade
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Africa in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade

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Africa in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade. Volume of the Slave Trade. 15 th century minimal – to Atlantic island plantations 16 th century – small 17 th c. increase to 16,000 per year 18 th c. most of trade, 7 million slaves, 80% of all trade over all years

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volume of the slave trade
Volume of the Slave Trade
  • 15th century minimal – to Atlantic island plantations
  • 16th century – small
  • 17th c. increase to 16,000 per year
  • 18th c. most of trade, 7 million slaves, 80% of all trade over all years
  • 19th c. slows down, under attack, still exports to Cuba & Brazil (1.7 million)
african slavery
African Slavery
  • Slavery was common in African society
    • Where?
      • The Kongo, Ghana, Benin, etc.
    • All land was owned by the state
      • Owning slaves was a way to gain wealth
    • Slaves were used for servants, concubines, and field workers
  • Arrival of Europeans provided new opportunities for expansion of slavery
slavery african politics
Slavery & African Politics
  • Competition between rival kingdoms led to endless wars
    • Kingdoms trade slaves for guns
    • Wars led to political centralization
  • Slave trade shifts balance of power
    • From Sudanic Africa to the Gold Coast, the Kongo, and Angola
the asanti a sample kingdom
The Asanti: A Sample Kingdom
  • Asante is on the Gold Coast
    • Modern day Ghana
  • Asante were members of the Akan people
    • Began as twenty small states
      • Matrilineal clan lineage
    • Most prominent clan was the Okoyo
  • Access to firearms allowed the Okoyo to centralize their authority after 1650 CE
    • Under the leadership of Osei Tutu (d. 1717)
asanti kingdom
Asanti Kingdom
  • Other Akan clans forced to pay tribute
    • Clans maintain some autonomy
  • A council advised the ruler on important issues
  • Used an ideology of unity to overcome clan divisions
  • Dealt directly with the Dutch at El Mina
    • Slave made up 2/3 of trade by 1700
the kongo
The Kongo
  • Centralized kingdom
  • Converted to Christianity
  • Maintained diplomatic ties with Portugal
  • Attempted to abolish the slave trade
  • Portugal monopolized trade with the Kongo
    • Cowries, slaves, Asian luxuries

Loango, capital city of the Kongo

cape colony
Cape Colony
  • Dutch East India Co. establish a colony at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652
    • Provision ships headed to Asia
  • Large fertile lands were great for farming
    • Used slave labor
      • Slaves brought from Indonesia and other parts of Asia
      • Eventually enslave the natives
    • Dutch settlers, called Boers, move to Cape Colony in search of land
      • 17, 000 settlers, 26,ooo slaves, and 14,ooo natives by 1800
east africa the arrival of europe
East Africa & the Arrival of Europe
  • Swahili city-states continued traditional commerce in the Indian Ocean
  • Portuguese settlers on the coast used slave soldiers to expand their territories
    • Established plantations growing Asian spices using African slaves
  • Some African states copied European plantation system
    • Zanzibar had 100,000 slaves by 1860
sudanic africa
Sudanic Africa
  • Fall of Songhai brought period of violent Islamization
    • Islamic elites vs. animistic natives
    • Violence helped supply slaves to coastal regions
  • In the 1770s Muslim reform movements began to spread a “purified” Sufi Islam
    • Movement had a major impact on Fulani tribe of the Western Sudan
the sokoto caliphate
The Sokoto Caliphate
  • Founded by Usman Dan Fodio
    • Believed he was an instrument of Allah
    • Preached jihad against Hausa kingdoms
  • Usman’s son founded the Sokoto Caliphate in northern Nigeria
    • Attacked neighboring Muslim kingdoms
  • Effects of reformist Islam
    • Spread literacy, new centers of trade emerged, attempts to eliminate pagan practices