Africa in the age of the atlantic slave trade
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Africa in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade. Volume of the Slave Trade. 15 th century minimal – to Atlantic island plantations 16 th century – small 17 th c. increase to 16,000 per year 18 th c. most of trade, 7 million slaves, 80% of all trade over all years

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Volume of the slave trade
Volume of the Slave Trade

  • 15th century minimal – to Atlantic island plantations

  • 16th century – small

  • 17th c. increase to 16,000 per year

  • 18th c. most of trade, 7 million slaves, 80% of all trade over all years

  • 19th c. slows down, under attack, still exports to Cuba & Brazil (1.7 million)

African slavery
African Slavery

  • Slavery was common in African society

    • Where?

      • The Kongo, Ghana, Benin, etc.

    • All land was owned by the state

      • Owning slaves was a way to gain wealth

    • Slaves were used for servants, concubines, and field workers

  • Arrival of Europeans provided new opportunities for expansion of slavery

Slavery african politics
Slavery & African Politics

  • Competition between rival kingdoms led to endless wars

    • Kingdoms trade slaves for guns

    • Wars led to political centralization

  • Slave trade shifts balance of power

    • From Sudanic Africa to the Gold Coast, the Kongo, and Angola

The asanti a sample kingdom
The Asanti: A Sample Kingdom

  • Asante is on the Gold Coast

    • Modern day Ghana

  • Asante were members of the Akan people

    • Began as twenty small states

      • Matrilineal clan lineage

    • Most prominent clan was the Okoyo

  • Access to firearms allowed the Okoyo to centralize their authority after 1650 CE

    • Under the leadership of Osei Tutu (d. 1717)

Asanti kingdom
Asanti Kingdom

  • Other Akan clans forced to pay tribute

    • Clans maintain some autonomy

  • A council advised the ruler on important issues

  • Used an ideology of unity to overcome clan divisions

  • Dealt directly with the Dutch at El Mina

    • Slave made up 2/3 of trade by 1700

The kongo
The Kongo

  • Centralized kingdom

  • Converted to Christianity

  • Maintained diplomatic ties with Portugal

  • Attempted to abolish the slave trade

  • Portugal monopolized trade with the Kongo

    • Cowries, slaves, Asian luxuries

Loango, capital city of the Kongo

Cape colony
Cape Colony

  • Dutch East India Co. establish a colony at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652

    • Provision ships headed to Asia

  • Large fertile lands were great for farming

    • Used slave labor

      • Slaves brought from Indonesia and other parts of Asia

      • Eventually enslave the natives

    • Dutch settlers, called Boers, move to Cape Colony in search of land

      • 17, 000 settlers, 26,ooo slaves, and 14,ooo natives by 1800

East africa the arrival of europe
East Africa & the Arrival of Europe

  • Swahili city-states continued traditional commerce in the Indian Ocean

  • Portuguese settlers on the coast used slave soldiers to expand their territories

    • Established plantations growing Asian spices using African slaves

  • Some African states copied European plantation system

    • Zanzibar had 100,000 slaves by 1860

Sudanic africa
Sudanic Africa

  • Fall of Songhai brought period of violent Islamization

    • Islamic elites vs. animistic natives

    • Violence helped supply slaves to coastal regions

  • In the 1770s Muslim reform movements began to spread a “purified” Sufi Islam

    • Movement had a major impact on Fulani tribe of the Western Sudan

The sokoto caliphate
The Sokoto Caliphate

  • Founded by Usman Dan Fodio

    • Believed he was an instrument of Allah

    • Preached jihad against Hausa kingdoms

  • Usman’s son founded the Sokoto Caliphate in northern Nigeria

    • Attacked neighboring Muslim kingdoms

  • Effects of reformist Islam

    • Spread literacy, new centers of trade emerged, attempts to eliminate pagan practices