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Stalemate in Washington. Patronage, Stalwarts, Pendleton Act, rebate & ICC. Tradition dictated that jobs or spoils went to the winning party in the elections (patronage). President Garfield was assassinated because of this system. Cleanup Politics.

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Stalemate in Washington

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Stalemate in washington

Stalemate in Washington

Patronage, Stalwarts, Pendleton Act, rebate & ICC

Cleanup politics

  • Tradition dictated that jobs or spoils went to the winning party in the elections (patronage).

  • President Garfield was assassinated because of this system.

Cleanup Politics

Stalwarts halfbreeds

  • Rutherford B. Hayes attacked the patronage system when he took office.

  • His actions angered NY senator Roscoe Conkling. He was the local political boss of the Republican party machine (Stalwart).

  • Republican’s were angered by Hayes abandonment of Reconstruction. He along with other reformers were called halfbreeds.

Stalwarts & Halfbreeds

Pendleton act

  • Allowed the President to decide which jobs were civil service.

  • Civil service jobs applicants had to take exams.

  • This caused a shift from the spoils system to civil service.

Pendleton Act

Two parties

  • Most people in NE & upper Midwest were Republicans.

  • Supported by former Union Soldiers, big business and farmers in the Great Plains.

  • The GOP was also considered the moral party.

  • Democrats were the party of the South, Catholics, immigrants.

Two Parties

Democrats reclaim the white house

  • Democrats nominate Grover Cleveland against James Blaine .

  • Cleveland runs against the corrupt political machine of New York (Tammany Hall).

  • The election was about corrupt government. Voters concentrated on the candidates morals.

  • Republican reformers called Mugwumps voted for Cleveland instead of Blaine.

Democrats Reclaim the White House

Presidential problems

  • Cleveland had to deal with patronage requests from Democrats and the Mugwumps wanted more jobs based on merit.

  • The country was growing more industrialized.

  • Labor unrest also was growing.

Presidential Problems

Stalemate in washington

  • Violence reached its peak in 1886 with the Haymarket Square bombing in Chicago.

  • The power of large corporations also concerned Americans.

  • Big corporations were able to get rebates on the shipping of their goods others were forced to ship at higher rates.


Stalemate in washington

  • Both parties believed that the government should not interfere with corporations property rights.

  • States passed laws in 1886 regulating freight rates.

  • Supreme Court overruled the states in 1886.

  • 1887 due to public pressure Congress created the ICC regulating interstate commerce.


Republicans regain power

  • 1888 Harrison defeats Cleveland. Harrison lost the popular vote.

  • In 1890 the McKinley Tariff turned a budget surplus into a budget deficit.

  • The Republicans also increased the number of veterans who could receive a pension further more increasing the deficit.

Republicans Regain Power

Sherman anti trust act

  • 1890 responding again to public pressure, the Republicans outlawed any combination of trust or conspiracy to restrain trade or commerce amongst several states.

  • The Courts did not see fit to uphold this law.

  • By 1890 the public had lost hope for the 2 party system.

Sherman Anti Trust Act

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