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Translation Theory and Practice. Introduction of the course : Purpose( 培养目标 ) : 高等学校英语专业英语教学大纲 basic ideas , basic skills , translation ability Selection of texts : 1) 孙致礼 《 新编英汉翻译教程 》 陈宏薇 《 新编汉英翻译教程 》 (“十五”规划教 材) 2 ) 彭长江 《 英汉-汉英翻译教程 》 (修订本)

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Translation Theory and Practice

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Translation theory and practice l.jpg

Translation Theory and Practice


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Introduction of the course :

  • Purpose(培养目标):高等学校英语专业英语教学大纲

    basic ideas,basic skills,translation ability

  • Selection of texts:

    1)孙致礼 《新编英汉翻译教程》

    陈宏薇 《新编汉英翻译教程》(“十五”规划教

    材)

    2)彭长江 《英汉-汉英翻译教程》(修订本)

    3)自编练习与对照读物。

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  • Teaching Plan:

    This course consists of 72 teaching hours, one academic year. This semester: 36 teaching hours, 18 weeks, and two teaching hours each week.

  • Demand:

    Finish every task on time

    Be active in discussion

    Hand in your translation homework on time

  • Evaluation:

    Class participation, discussion, exercise and homework, 30%

    Final examination, 70%


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Topic 1 Definition and Nature of Translation

Topic 2 The Criteria of Translation

Topic 3 Prerequisites for a Translator

Topic 4 The Process of Translation

Topic 5 Translation Methods

Topic 6 Translation Unit

Topic 7 A Comparative Study of Chinese and English (Part I)

Topic 8 A Comparative Study of Chinese and English Language (Part II)

Topic 9 A Comparative Study of Chinese and English (Part III)

Topic 10 Disparity in the Thinking Mode Between the East and the West and Its Effect on Chinese-English Translation

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Topic 11 Culture and Translation

Topic 12 Diction in Translation

Topic 13 Amplification in Translation

Topic 14 Omission

Topic 15 Conversion of Word Types

Topic 16 The Passive and Active Voice in Translation

Topic 17 Negation and Affirmation in Translation

Topic 18 Inversion

Topic 19 Determining the Subject of a Sentence

Topic 20 The Translation of the Attributive Clause

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Topic 21 The Translation of Adverbial Clauses in Contractual terms

Topic 22 Long Sentences in English-Chinese Translation

Topic 23 The Rendering of Long Sentences(C-E)

Topic 24 Translation of Figurative Expressions

Topic 25 The Translation of Chinese Idioms and Four- Character Phrases into English

Topic 26 The Translation of English Idioms and Chinese Free Four-Character Phrases

Topic 27 Translationese

Topic 28 Chinglish

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Topic 29-30 Stylistic Studies in Translation

Topic 31 Translation of Ancient Chinese Prose

Topic 32Translation of Ancient Chinese Poems

Topic 33 Tourism

Topic 34 The Translation of Proper Names

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Topic 1 Definition and Nature of Translation

教学目的:旨在让学生了解什么是翻译以及翻译的性质

教学重点与难点:翻译的定义和性质

教学方法:讲述与实例相结合

参考书目:孙致礼,《新编英汉翻译教程》;陈宏薇,《新编汉英翻译教程》;彭长江,《英汉-汉英翻译教程》。

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Topic 1 Definition and Nature of Translation

1. 翻译的定义(Definition)

2. 翻译的性质(Nature)

3. 翻译的种类(Classification)

4. 口笔译的区别(Differences)

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1. What is translation?(翻译的定义)

The term “translation” itself (connotation) has several meanings:

General subject field

product ( the text that has been translated)

process ( the act of producing the translation, otherwise known as translating)

The Chinese equivalent “Fanyi” sounds even fuzzier.


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Various Definitions of Translation

  • The Oxford English Dictionary: to turn from one language into another(从一种语言转换成另一种语言);

  • Webster’s third New International Dictionary of the English Language: to turn into one’s own or another language。(转换成本族语或另一种语言)。

  • 翻译是一种“语言转换”活动。

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Meetham & Hudson:

Translation is the replacement of a representation of a text in one language by a representation of an equivalent text in a second language. (Meetham, A. R. and Hudson, R. A. Encyclopedia of Linguistics, Information and Control, Oxford: Pergamon Press,1969 )

Dubois: Translation is the expression in one language (or target language) of what has been expressed in another, source language, preserving semantic and stylisticequivalences. (Bell, R. T., Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice, New York: Longman Group UK Ltd.,1991)


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翻译是人类交流思想过程中沟通不同语言的桥梁,使通晓不同语言的人能通过原文的重新表达而进行思想交流。翻译是把一种语言(即原语)的信息用另一种语言(即译语)表达出来,使译文读者能得到原作者所表达的思想,得到与原文读者大致相同的感受。(范仲英,《实用翻译教程》)

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翻译是许多语言活动中的一种,它是用一种语言形式把另一种语言形式里的内容重新表现出来的语言实践活动。翻译是一门艺术,是语言艺术的再创作。如果把写作比成自由跳舞,翻译就是戴着手铐脚镣在跳舞,而且还要跳得优美。翻译是一门永无止境的艺术,它的艺术美已经远远超出了语言的范畴。(冯庆华,《实用翻译教程》)

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美国翻译理论家Eugene A. Nida:

  • 把翻译中的“意义”概括成“语义”和“语体”:

  • Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.

  • (所谓翻译,是指在译语中用最切近而又自然的对等语再现原语的信息,首先在语义上,其次在文体上。)

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  • Produced a theory that fosters effective communication across all kinds of cultural and linguistic barriers.

  • His books Toward a Science of Translating (Brill, 1964), and The Theory and Practice of Translation (Brill, 1969, with C.R. Taber)

  • His theory: dynamic equivalence or functional equivalence

  • In essence, this approach enables the translator to capture the meaning and spirit of the original language text without being bound to its linguistic structure.


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General Definition

  • What is generally understood as translation involves the rendering of a source language (SL) text into the target language (TL) so as to ensure that the meaning of the two will be approximately similar and the style of the SL will be preserved as closely as possible.

  • 翻译是将一种语言文化承载的意义转换到另一种语言文化中的跨语言、跨文化的交际活动。意义的交流必须通过语言来实现,而每种语言都有一个独特文化的部分和载体。我们在转换一个文本的语言信息时,也在传达其蕴含的文化意义。翻译的本质是释义,是意义的转换。


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  • 翻译是把一种语言表达的意义用另一种语言传达出来,以达到沟通思想情感、传播文化知识、促进社会文明,特别是推动译语文化兴旺昌盛的目的。

  • Our translation course attempts to outline briefly the knowledge and skills which underlie the practical abilities of the would-be translator or teacher.

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  • 中国译协会长刘习良在 “2006中国国际翻译产业论坛”作主旨发言时指出:

    高水平的翻译专业人才和翻译专业师资队伍严重匮乏。……在对翻译工作的认识上, 存在诸多误区。比如,‘懂外语, 就能作翻译’ 这种错误观念还相当普遍。其结果, 就是许多人能够和外国人对话, 却不能胜任翻译任务。……外语与翻译之间固然关系密切, 但是, 外语与翻译毕竟是两门学科。翻译是科学,又是艺术。


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  • 例1.It was an old woman, tall and shapely still, though withered by time, on whom his eyes fell when he stopped and turned.

  • 译文一:当他站住并转身时,目光落在一个老年妇女的身上,她身材高,而且模样好,虽然时光使她变得干枯了。


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  • 译文二:他站住了,转过身来,定睛一看,是个年迈的妇女,她身材高而且匀称;虽然受了时间的折磨而有点憔悴。

  • 译文三:他站住了,转过身来,定睛一看,是个年迈的妇女。她身材修长,虽受岁月的折磨而有点憔悴,但风韵犹存。

  • 译文四:他停住脚步,转过身来,目光落在一个年迈妇女身上。她身材高挑,虽受岁月的磨难而憔悴,但风韵仍不减当年。


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例2:“What does that lawyer do after he dies?”/ “Lie still.”

译文1:“那个律师死后能干什么?”/ “静静地躺着”。 (《英汉翻译概要》

译文2:“那个律师死后还能干什么?”/ “躺着说鬼话”。 (马红军 译)

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Two major schools

Linguistic school Cultural school

The whole process of translation

Translating publication effect


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translator

author

source text (ST)

source text readers

target text (TT)

target text readers

translated text

target version

译者

作者

原文

原文读者

译文

译文读者

译文

译文

Some Key Terms and Concepts


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Source language (SL)

Target language (TL)

Meaning (semantic)

Style (stylistic)

Product

Process

text

Message

Equivalence

原语/源语

译语/目的语

语义(语义的)

文体(文体的)

产品( 译作)

过程 (翻译)

文本

信息(内容)

对等


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2. Nature of Translation

What is translation?

a science;

an art;

a craft;

a skill;

an operation;

a language activity;

communication.

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Schools of Translation

  • The School of Science

    This school maintains that translating should reproduce the message of the original by means of the transformation of linguistic equivalence. It puts stress on the study of description of the process of translation, and the structures and forms of language so as to reveal the objective laws inherent in translating.


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The School of Art

This school advocates re-creating a literary work by using expressions of another language. It emphasizes the effect of translation.

(Note: Lin Yutang(林语堂)was once a representative. In his essay “On Translation” he declares that translation is an art whose success depends on one’s artistic talent and enough training.)


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  • Now there is a tendency to combine the theories of the two schools into a comprehensive one. As a matter of fact, translation, especially, literary translation, has a double nature: it is both a science and an art.


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Translation is an art, a bilingual art. In translation, certain skills and technique are needed in order to attain clearness of style, and fluency in language. Strictly speaking, translation is a kind of science because it has a whole set of rules governing it and certain objective laws to go by in the process of translating just as other sciences do.

翻译的性质 :

翻译是将一种语言文化承载的意义转换到另一种语言文化中

的跨语言、跨文化的交际活动。

翻译的本质是释义,是意义的转换。

翻译课的目的是培养和提高学生实际翻译能力。翻译是一门技

巧课,翻译本身又是一门科学,是有规律可循的。进行翻译教学应

该是有理论又有实践,两者紧密结合。用翻译理论(包括翻译技巧)

指导学生翻译实践,才能提高翻译能力。

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e.g.:I love my love with an E, because she's enticing; I hate her with an E, because she's engaged; I took her to the sign of the exquisite, and treated her with an elopement; her name's Emily, and she lives in the east. (Dickens, David Copperfield)

译文1:

我爱我的爱人为了一个E,因为她是Enticing (迷人的);我恨我的爱人为了一个E, 因为她是Engaged (订了婚的)。我用我的爱人象征Exquisite (美妙), 我劝我的爱人从事Elopement (私奔),她的名字是Emily (爱弥丽),她的住处在East (东方)。(董秋斯)

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译文2:

我爱我的爱,因为她长得实在招人爱。我恨我的爱,因为她不回报我的爱。我带着她到挂着浮荡子招牌的一家,和她谈情说爱。我请她看一出潜逃私奔,为的是我和她能长久你亲我爱。她的名字叫爱弥丽,她的家住在爱仁里。(张谷若)

译文3:

我爱我的爱人,因为她很迷人;我恨我的爱人,因已许配他人;他在我心中是美人,我带她私奔,以避开外人;她名叫虞美人,是东方丽人。(姜秋霞、张柏然)

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译文4:

我爱我的那个伊,因为她的美貌让我依恋不已。我恨我的那个伊,因为她又依顺投奔他人门第。我们曾经依计而行乘风比翼,到过那依山傍水的秀美之地。我说的那位名叫做伊米丽,它的府上依稀可记在东方某地。(丁衡祁)

译文5:

吾爱吾爱,因伊可爱;吾恨吾恨,因伊另有所爱。吾视吾爱,神圣之爱,吾携吾爱,私逃为爱;吾爱名爱米丽,吾东方之爱。(姜秋霞、张柏然)

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译文6:

我爱我的那个“丽”,可爱迷人有魅力;我恨我的那“丽”,要和他人结伉俪;她文雅大方又美丽,和我出逃去游历; 她芳名就叫爱米丽,家住东方人俏丽。(马红军)

译文7:

我爱我的心上人,因为她那样地叫人入迷(enticing);我恨我的心上人,因为她已订婚将作他人妻(engaged);她花容月貌无可比拟(exquisite),我劝她私奔跟我在一起(elopement);她的名字叫埃米莉(Emily),她的家就在东城里(east)。我为我的心上人呀,一切都因为这个E!(陆乃圣)

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点评:

以上七种译文中,译文1多少有些无奈,汉英夹杂,不仅拖沓别扭,原文的修辞美也几近丧失。译文2、3、4采取了归化法,虽然总体上感觉不错,却要么归化过头(爱仁里、虞美人等)要么拗口。译文5语义与原文相差无几,但因过多使用汉语四字格结构,读来犹如绕口令。比读之下,译文6和7似乎更胜一筹,特别是译文7,它打乱了原文的叙述顺序,行文流畅、自然,音韵美和节奏感俱在。

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More Examples:

1)美中不足

America/ USA and China are both insufficient.

It is far from being perfect.

It leaves much /something to be desired.

Much is still left to be desired.

2) More is meant than meets the ear.

意在言外

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3、Classification of Translation

Translation covers a very broad range:

  • 就涉及语言分类(language):

    a.语内翻译(intra-lingual translation):同一种语言的各个语言变体之间的翻译。

    b.语际翻译(inter-lingual translation):不同语言之间的翻译。 )(from native languages into foreign languages and vice versa )。


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  • 就活动方式分类(mode):

    a. 口译(interpretation):

    1.连续传译/即席翻译 (consecutive

    interpretation)

    2.同声传译 (simultaneous interpretation)

    b. 笔译(translation)

    c. 机器翻译(machine translation)


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C.就文体分类(style)

a. 应用文体翻译(公告、通知、法令、广告、启事、契约、合同、公函、私信等)-格式规范,严谨紧凑,明晰准确

b. 科技文体翻译 (科技论著、情报资料、试验报告、设备产品说明等)- 译文准确,术语规范,具有专业特色。

c. 论述文体翻译(社科论著、研究报告、文献资料等) - 准确无误,逻辑清晰,语言庄重。

d. 新闻文体翻译(新闻报道、新闻电讯、新闻评论、新闻特写)- 译文格式正确,语意清新,用词生动。

e. 艺术文体翻译(小说、散文、诗歌和戏剧等)- 译文准确达意,生动流畅,富有文采。


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D.就处理方式分类(disposal)

a. 全译:对原文进行原封不动的翻译

b. 节译:对原文进行局部的删节性翻译

c. 摘译:摘取原文中心内容或个别章节段落进行翻译

d. 编译:对一个文本或几个文本的相关内容加工编辑,根据要求作出概述性传译

e. 译述:仅仅表达出原文的主要内容和大意


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翻译的特点:

一、人云亦云

二、不容更改

三、先理解,后动笔

四、克服原语的干扰

(语言的表达方式和使用习惯)

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例如:1、他能吃能睡。

2、五讲四美三热爱。

3、允许一部分人先富起来!

原译:1、He can eat and sleep.

2、five stresses, four beauties and three loves.

3、 Let some people get rich first

改译:1、He is a good eater and sound sleeper.

2、five stresses/advocatings (on decorum, manners, hygiene, discipline and morals) and four points of beauty (of the mind, language, behaviour and the environment).

3、Encourage some people to become rich first.

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4. 中国男厨子对美国餐馆女老板讲工钱:

“每月工资二十元,供给膳宿(亦说‘包吃包睡’)”

Twenty dollars one month(每月20美元),eat you (吃

你),sleep you(睡你)!

5. “先生,您的夫人真漂亮。”

“哪里,哪里”。

“where, where?

“everywhere, everywhere”

“不见得,不见得”

“you can't see it, you can't see it”

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Class Exercise (1): Inaccuracy & Amendment

  • 原文:Agreement on control and reduction of weapon between the superpowers is impossible, as it has been for so many years.


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误译:

超级大国之间要达成控制和削减武器的协议,如多年来表明的那样,是不可能的。

正译:

超级大国之间要取得控制和削减武器的一致意见,如多年来表明的那样,是不可能的。

Agreement on control and reduction of weapon between the superpowers is impossible, as it has been for so many years.


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说明:

英语不可数名词在形式上与可数名词单数相同,但意义不尽相同。Agreement作不可数名词意为 “意见一致”而作可数名词意为“协议”。在此例句中,agreement前面既无an, 词尾也未加s, 因而是不可数名词,应译为“意见一致”。

据此,如何翻译下面短语?

to come to an agreement

to come to agreement


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2. 原文:

The United Nations Organization was born at the end of the Second World War out of the reaction of peoples determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war.


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The United Nations Organization was born at the end of the Second World War out of the reaction of peoples determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge(苦难) of war.

误译:

联合国组织是在第二次世界大战末期根据人民决心要拯救后代免于战争的灾祸的反应而诞生的,

正译:

联合国组织是在第二次世界大战末期根据各国人民决心要拯救后代免于战争的灾祸的反应而诞生的,


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说明:

people - 人民、人们

peoples – 各国人民、各民族

例:the Chinese people – 中国人民

the unity among the peoples of our country – 我国各民族间的团结


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3. 原文

It is the superpowers that should be responsible for the hostilities in the Middle East.


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误译

应对中东的敌对状态负责的是美国。

正译

应对中东的战争负责的是美国。

It is USA that should be responsible for the hostilities in the Middle East.


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说明

hostility – 敌对状态、敌意

hostilities – 战争、战事

如:

to arouse someone’s hostility-引起某人的敌意

the outbreak of hostilities - 战事的爆发


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4. 原文

We know the first central electric power stations to have been built for the supply of electric light.


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误译

我们知道第一个主要的发电站是为了供应照明而建造的。

正译

我们知道第一批主要的发电站是为了供应照明而建造的。

We know the first central electric power stations to have been built for the supply of electric light.


4 differences in interpretation and translation l.jpg

4、Differences in Interpretation and Translation

1)Bilingual reading: “No Giant Skyscrapers” p.2

2)Preview “Criteria for Translation”

3)Read E-C& C-E, p.5-7

E-C, p.5-7/ C-E, p.1-2

4)Translate Mini-essay No. 1: Vatican

5、Assignments:

R


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