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## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' CSE 326: Data Structures Lecture #5 Heaps More' - cecily

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We get slide printouts every class

- 4 pages of notes per day 50 students 3 lectures per week 10 weeks per quarter engineer’s fudge factor 10,000 pages
- one 60 foot pine tree 80,000 pages
- Frankye Jones’s frantic effort = one paycheck for Steve
- paycheck + www.americanforests.org = 1 tree / $1
- How about two trees per person?

Today’s Outline

- Things Steve Didn’t Finish on Wednesday (Heaps)
- Extra heap operations
- d-Heaps
- Return Quizzes

Other Priority Queue Operations

- decreaseKey
- given a pointer to an object in the queue, reduce its priority value
- increaseKey
- given a pointer to an object in the queue, increase its priority value
- remove
- given a pointer to an object in the queue, remove it
- buildHeap
- given a set of items, build a heap

DecreaseKey, IncreaseKey, and Remove

void decreaseKey(int obj) {

assert(size >= obj);

temp = Heap[obj];

newPos = percolateUp(obj, temp);

Heap[newPos] = temp;

}

void increaseKey(int obj) {

assert(size >= obj);

temp = Heap[obj];

newPos = percolateDown(obj, temp);

Heap[newPos] = temp;

}

void remove(int obj) {

assert(size >= obj);

percolateUp(obj,

NEG_INF_VAL);

deleteMin();

}

BuildHeapFloyd’s Method. Thank you, Floyd.

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pretend it’s a heap and fix the heap-order property!

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Thinking about Heaps

- Observations
- finding a child/parent index is a multiply/divide by two
- operations jump widely through the heap
- each operation looks at only two new nodes
- inserts are at least as common as deleteMins
- Realities
- division and multiplication by powers of two are fast
- looking at one new piece of data sucks in a cache line
- with huge data sets, disk accesses dominate

Solution: d-Heaps

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- Each node has d children
- Still representable by array
- Good choices for d:
- optimize performance based on # of inserts/removes
- choose a power of two for efficiency
- fit one set of children in a cache line
- fit one set of children on a memory page/disk block

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One More Operation

- Merge two heaps. Ideas?

To Do

- Turn in Project I (due today)
- Start on Homework II (due Jan 20th)
- Read chapter 6 in the book

Coming Up

- Mergeable heaps
- Dictionary ADT and Self-Balancing Trees
- First project due (January 14th)
- A day off (January 17th)!
- Second homework assignment due (January 20th)

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