Early anthropods
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Early Anthropods. Anthropods emerge from sea Preadapted- possessions of adaptations usable for life on land by chance ie- exoskeletons- waterproof Breathing- development of tracheae (small tubes with adjustable holes in the exoskeleton for air)

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Early Anthropods

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Early anthropods

Early Anthropods

  • Anthropods emerge from sea

  • Preadapted- possessions of adaptations usable for life on land by chanceie- exoskeletons- waterproof

  • Breathing- development of tracheae (small tubes with adjustable holes in the exoskeleton for air)

  • Tens of millions of years- anthropods dominated the land (millipedes, dragonflies)


Early amphibians

Early Amphibians

  • 400 million years ago- lobefins appeared- fresh water major preadaptations- fins, pouch used for lung

  • One group of lobefins, the lung formed into a swim bladder and they returned to sea

  • First amphibian fossil record about 350 million years ago

  • Skin had to be kept moist because oxygen came through the skin

  • Sperm and eggs could not survive in dry habitat


Early reptiles

Early Reptiles

  • Four great adaptations to reptiles- internal fertilization, shelled waterproof eggs, scaly waterproof skin, improved lungs

  • Evolution from early reptiles into dinosaurs- carnivores, herbivores

  • Dinosaurs flourished for more that 100 million years- extinction unknown, maybe climate change caused by meteorite impact

  • To prevent heat loss, some reptiles developed feathers or even hair


Early birds and mammals

Early Birds and Mammals

  • Insulating feathers retained body heat which was important

  • At first, gliding birds started, then flight was produced

  • Mammals had hair for insulation also

  • Unlike birds and reptiles, mammals evolved live birth and offspring feeding using mammary glands

  • Since hair, mammary glands, uterus fossilize, we will not know when it evolved

  • 55 million years ago, hair was found in fossilized feces

  • Early mammals were small, tree-living ones- eventually, tree-living mammals stayed there and gave rise to primates


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