The Educational Role of the Library in a Digital Environment
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The Educational Role of the Library in a Digital Environment Part II: Design for Learning. Michael Buckland NORSLIS Visiting Professor Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative and School of Information, University of California, Berkeley SALT, Uppsala, October 2, 2008.

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The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

The Educational Role of the Library in a Digital Environment

Part II: Design for Learning.

Michael Buckland NORSLIS Visiting Professor

Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative and

School of Information, University of California, Berkeley

SALT, Uppsala, October 2, 2008

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

Emanuel Goldberg, b. Moscow, 1881; son of Grigorii Goldberg; Univ. of Moscow, 1900-04; Ph.D w. Robert Luther, Leipzig Univ., 1906; Assistant, Adolf Miethe, TU Charlottenburg, 1906-07; Prof, Akad. f. graphische Künste, Leipzig, 1907-17; ICA, Zeiss Ikon, Dresden, 1917-1933; Kinamo cine camera, 1921; microdots, 1925; search engine, 1927; Contax 35 mm camera 1932; kidnapped by Nazi SA; refugee in Paris, 1933-37; Laboratory, Palestine, Israel, 1937; d. 1970.

WHO?

Click a name to search for an internet resource.

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

Emanuel Goldberg, b. Moscow, 1881; son of Grigorii Goldberg; Univ. of Moscow, 1900-04; Ph.D w. Robert Luther, Leipzig Univ., 1906; Assistant, Adolf Miethe, TU Charlottenburg, 1906-07; Prof, Akad. f. graphische Künste, Leipzig, 1907-17; ICA, Zeiss Ikon, Dresden, 1917-1933; Kinamo cine camera, 1921; microdots, 1925; search engine, 1927; Contax 35 mm camera 1932; kidnapped by Nazi SA; refugee in Paris, 1933-37; Laboratory, Palestine, Israel, 1937; d. 1970.

WHERE?

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

Emanuel Goldberg, b. Moscow, 1881; son of Grigorii Goldberg; Univ. of Moscow, 1900-04; Ph.D w. Robert Luther, Leipzig Univ., 1906; Assistant, Adolf Miethe, TU Charlottenburg, 1906-07; Prof, Akad. f. graphische Künste, Leipzig, 1907-17; ICA, Zeiss Ikon, Dresden, 1917-1933; Kinamo cine camera, 1921; microdots, 1925; search engine, 1927; Contax 35 mm camera 1932; kidnapped by Nazi SA; refugee in Paris, 1933-37; Laboratory, Palestine, Israel, 1937; d. 1970.

WHAT?

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

Building the functionality of a reference collection.

1. Context finder: Search support from text to reference works.

2. Context builder: Make, retain notes and links to reference works.

3. Context provider: Make reference works better by adding two-way links, e.g. text has links to place name list AND place name list has links to texts.

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

In a paper environment, reading inside a library is the best place to learn. It is well designed to explain the context!

How do we move this situation into an internet environment?

Library resources

Encyclopedias

Atlases, place name

Biographical dictionaries

Bibliographies

Library catalog

Statistical series

etc., etc. . . . .

Text

with a interesting details.

Who was she?

Where is that?

What is this?

What else was happening?

Reader

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

Initial sketch for “Context Finding / Building” interface.

Save search path

Save link & notes as “stand-off” markup.

Save link & notes as embedded mark-up.

Insert / block text

Ranked lists of suggested resources for each facet chosen

Define facet

Display of search result

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

Building the functionality of a reference collection.

1. Context finder: Search support from text to reference works.

2. Context builder: Make, retain notes and links to reference works.

3. Context provider: Make reference works better by adding two-way links, e.g. text has links to place name list AND place name list has links to texts.

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

Scanned text

Named Entities

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

Cursor over a name highlights every mention of that name in the text.

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

Named entities are linked to specific resources or dynamic searches over relevant databases.

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

Building the functionality of a reference collection.

1. Context finder: Search support from text to reference works.

2. Context builder: Make, retain notes and links to reference works.

3. Context provider: Make reference works better by adding two-way links, e.g. text has links to place name list AND place name list has links to texts.

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

Named entities not detected automatically can be added manually.

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

Initially, named entities are linked to keyword searches at the appropriate name authorities and metadata services. Here we see a number of possible candidates for “Henry V”.

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

Now that it has been disambiguated, the named entity links directly to the appropriate record.

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

Building the functionality of a reference collection.

1. Context finder: Search support from text to reference works.

2. Context builder: Making, retaining notes / links to reference works.

3. Context provider: Enriching reference works by adding reverse links, e.g. place name gazetteer mentions where a place is mentioned in texts.

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

Edmund Hogan’s Onomasticon Goedelicum : Locorum et Tribuum Hiberniae et Scotiae = An Index, with Identifications, to the Gaelic Names of Places and Tribes

If searchable online, one could, when reading an Irish studies text:

1. Search it (Context finder)

2. Markup text with links to it (Context builder);

3. Markup Hogan with reverse links to the Irish studies text (Context provider) – with rich consequences.

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

Comment: Facet genres include other facets

Library subject headings

Topic – Geographic subdivision – Chronological subdivision

Place name gazetteer

Place name – Type – Spatial markers (Lat & long) – When

Time Period Directory

Period name – Type – Time markers (Calendar) – Where

Biographical Dictionary

Person – Activity type – Time – Where – Who else

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

Facet genres with facets realigned.

WhatWhereWhen Who

WHAT (LCSH) X XXX

WHERE (Place name list)XXX-

WHEN (Time period dir.)XXX-

WHO (Biographical dict.) XXXX

From LCSH “Lighthouses” to NGA Place name list Geographic Description Code “Lthse” (Lighthouse). Place name list give locations of examples. Catalog gives literature about light houses.

Vertical mappings extend semantic links to new vocabularies.

Horizontal links provide additional context.

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

Importance of inverting the relationship between the part and the whole:

-- Indexes are created by inversion

-- Union indexes: Tell you which reference work mentions your query, like the Science Citation Index. . . as in Google.

Use dynamic links to the latest version of the best resources; and, for vocabulary:

Search term recommender systems

SALT2, Uppsala


The educational role of the library in a digital environment part ii design for learning

Paper-based reference collection: Codex determines structure and use.

Reference Genre VocabularyDisplays Facet

Encyclopedia TopicsCross-references WHAT

Atlas, place list PlacesMaps WHERE

Chronology Time Timelines WHEN

Biogr. Dictionary PersonsRelationshipsWHO

Search interest

Reversed in a digital environment: Metadata forms infrastructure.

Facet Vocabulary Displays Reference Genre

WHAT Topics Cross-references Encyclopedia

WHERE PlacesMaps Atlas, place list

WHEN PeriodsTimeline Chronology

WHO PersonsRelationships Biogr.dictionary

Search interest

Better, build a union index, so you know where too look!

http://metadata.berkeley.edu/demos/

SALT2, Uppsala


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