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The Educational Role of the Library in a Digital Environment Part II: Design for Learning. Michael Buckland NORSLIS Visiting Professor Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative and School of Information, University of California, Berkeley SALT, Uppsala, October 2, 2008.

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The Educational Role of the Library in a Digital Environment

Part II: Design for Learning.

Michael Buckland NORSLIS Visiting Professor

Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative and

School of Information, University of California, Berkeley

SALT, Uppsala, October 2, 2008

SALT2, Uppsala


E manuel Goldberg, b. Moscow, 1881; son of Grigorii Goldberg; Univ. of Moscow, 1900-04; Ph.D w. Robert Luther, Leipzig Univ., 1906; Assistant, Adolf Miethe, TU Charlottenburg, 1906-07; Prof, Akad. f. graphische Künste, Leipzig, 1907-17; ICA, Zeiss Ikon, Dresden, 1917-1933; Kinamo cine camera, 1921; microdots, 1925; search engine, 1927; Contax 35 mm camera 1932; kidnapped by Nazi SA; refugee in Paris, 1933-37; Laboratory, Palestine, Israel, 1937; d. 1970.

WHO?

Click a name to search for an internet resource.

SALT2, Uppsala


E manuel Goldberg, b. Moscow, 1881; son of Grigorii Goldberg; Univ. of Moscow, 1900-04; Ph.D w. Robert Luther, Leipzig Univ., 1906; Assistant, Adolf Miethe, TU Charlottenburg, 1906-07; Prof, Akad. f. graphische Künste, Leipzig, 1907-17; ICA, Zeiss Ikon, Dresden, 1917-1933; Kinamo cine camera, 1921; microdots, 1925; search engine, 1927; Contax 35 mm camera 1932; kidnapped by Nazi SA; refugee in Paris, 1933-37; Laboratory, Palestine, Israel, 1937; d. 1970.

WHERE?

SALT2, Uppsala


E manuel Goldberg, b. Moscow, 1881; son of Grigorii Goldberg; Univ. of Moscow, 1900-04; Ph.D w. Robert Luther, Leipzig Univ., 1906; Assistant, Adolf Miethe, TU Charlottenburg, 1906-07; Prof, Akad. f. graphische Künste, Leipzig, 1907-17; ICA, Zeiss Ikon, Dresden, 1917-1933; Kinamo cine camera, 1921; microdots, 1925; search engine, 1927; Contax 35 mm camera 1932; kidnapped by Nazi SA; refugee in Paris, 1933-37; Laboratory, Palestine, Israel, 1937; d. 1970.

WHAT?

SALT2, Uppsala


Building the functionality of a reference collection.

1. Context finder: Search support from text to reference works.

2. Context builder: Make, retain notes and links to reference works.

3. Context provider: Make reference works better by adding two-way links, e.g. text has links to place name list AND place name list has links to texts.

SALT2, Uppsala


In a paper environment, reading inside a library is the best place to learn. It is well designed to explain the context!

How do we move this situation into an internet environment?

Library resources

Encyclopedias

Atlases, place name

Biographical dictionaries

Bibliographies

Library catalog

Statistical series

etc., etc. . . . .

Text

with a interesting details.

Who was she?

Where is that?

What is this?

What else was happening?

Reader

SALT2, Uppsala


Initial sketch for “Context Finding / Building” interface.

Save search path

Save link & notes as “stand-off” markup.

Save link & notes as embedded mark-up.

Insert / block text

Ranked lists of suggested resources for each facet chosen

Define facet

Display of search result

SALT2, Uppsala


Building the functionality of a reference interface.collection.

1. Context finder: Search support from text to reference works.

2. Context builder: Make, retain notes and links to reference works.

3. Context provider: Make reference works better by adding two-way links, e.g. text has links to place name list AND place name list has links to texts.

SALT2, Uppsala


Scanned text interface.

Named Entities

SALT2, Uppsala



Named entities are linked to specific resources or dynamic searches over relevant databases.

SALT2, Uppsala


Building the functionality of a reference searches over relevant databases.collection.

1. Context finder: Search support from text to reference works.

2. Context builder: Make, retain notes and links to reference works.

3. Context provider: Make reference works better by adding two-way links, e.g. text has links to place name list AND place name list has links to texts.

SALT2, Uppsala



Initially, named entities are linked to keyword searches at the appropriate name authorities and metadata services. Here we see a number of possible candidates for “Henry V”.

SALT2, Uppsala


Now that it has been disambiguated, the named entity links directly to the appropriate record.

SALT2, Uppsala


SALT2, Uppsala directly to the appropriate record.


SALT2, Uppsala directly to the appropriate record.


SALT2, Uppsala directly to the appropriate record.


Building the functionality of a reference directly to the appropriate record.collection.

1. Context finder: Search support from text to reference works.

2. Context builder: Making, retaining notes / links to reference works.

3. Context provider: Enriching reference works by adding reverse links, e.g. place name gazetteer mentions where a place is mentioned in texts.

SALT2, Uppsala


Edmund Hogan’s directly to the appropriate record.Onomasticon Goedelicum : Locorum et Tribuum Hiberniae et Scotiae = An Index, with Identifications, to the Gaelic Names of Places and Tribes

If searchable online, one could, when reading an Irish studies text:

1. Search it (Context finder)

2. Markup text with links to it (Context builder);

3. Markup Hogan with reverse links to the Irish studies text (Context provider) – with rich consequences.

SALT2, Uppsala


Comment: Facet genres include other facets directly to the appropriate record.

Library subject headings

Topic – Geographic subdivision – Chronological subdivision

Place name gazetteer

Place name – Type – Spatial markers (Lat & long) – When

Time Period Directory

Period name – Type – Time markers (Calendar) – Where

Biographical Dictionary

Person – Activity type – Time – Where – Who else

SALT2, Uppsala


Facet genres with facets realigned. directly to the appropriate record.

What Where When Who

WHAT (LCSH) X X X X

WHERE (Place name list) X X X -

WHEN (Time period dir.) X X X -

WHO (Biographical dict.) X X X X

From LCSH “Lighthouses” to NGA Place name list Geographic Description Code “Lthse” (Lighthouse). Place name list give locations of examples. Catalog gives literature about light houses.

Vertical mappings extend semantic links to new vocabularies.

Horizontal links provide additional context.

SALT2, Uppsala


Importance of inverting the relationship between the part and the whole:

-- Indexes are created by inversion

-- Union indexes: Tell you which reference work mentions your query, like the Science Citation Index. . . as in Google.

Use dynamic links to the latest version of the best resources; and, for vocabulary:

Search term recommender systems

SALT2, Uppsala


Paper-based reference collection: Codex determines structure and use.

Reference Genre Vocabulary Displays Facet

Encyclopedia Topics Cross-references WHAT

Atlas, place list Places Maps WHERE

Chronology Time Timelines WHEN

Biogr. Dictionary Persons RelationshipsWHO

Search interest

Reversed in a digital environment: Metadata forms infrastructure.

Facet Vocabulary Displays Reference Genre

WHAT Topics Cross-references Encyclopedia

WHERE Places Maps Atlas, place list

WHEN Periods Timeline Chronology

WHO Persons Relationships Biogr.dictionary

Search interest

Better, build a union index, so you know where too look!

http://metadata.berkeley.edu/demos/

SALT2, Uppsala


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