Group No. 3 : Sherry Lin Thomas Chen Joy Chatterjee Cynthia Montes. reasons for declining population growth rate in EU countries. Declining population growth rate in EU countries.
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Group No. 3:
In the 1990s, European demographers began noticing a downward trend in population across the Continent and behind it a sharply falling birthrate. Non-number-crunchers largely ignored the information until a 2002 study by Italian, German and Spanish social scientists focused the data and gave policy makers across the European Union something to ponder.
In 1963, Europe represented 12.5% of the world’s population. In 2008 it was 7.2%, and if current trends continue, by 2050 only 5% of the world will be European.
Birth rate : Live birth in an area per 1000 of the population in a year
Fertility rate: Average number of children born to a women each year over the course of her life
Spain, for example, had the average woman producing almost four children in 1960 and nearly three as late as 1975-1976. By the 1980s, young people became educated, economic opportunities opened for women and political liberty became entrenched. Because of these reasons, the institution of family lost its primacy, changing their priorities into building wealth, buying a house, having fun, travelling, but not incurring in the burden of many children.
The economy of the countries forced
couples either to move or to have
Uncertainty: Recession also generate long-lasting economic uncertainty that can have deep ramifications for long-term family planning. Couples can decide to have fewer children, or can postpone the birth of a child. Both lower the fertility rate; but in the second case, it may recover later.
High youth unemployment rate, that has affected the marriage and birth rates of native-born citizens, especially.
Young people are studying at higher levels and they must focus their resources in paying college fees and other costs related.
European women´s now give more importance to their career. Women age 18 to 34 were asked in a study to state their ideal number of children, 16.6% of those in Germany and 12.6% in Austria answered “none.” It seems childlessness emerges as an ideal lifestyle.
The difficulty to combine work and family has caused that the percentage of children born after the parents turn 40 is growing, so they tend not to have a second or third child.
Low starting wages cause young people to stay living with their parents longer.
Positive migration had always been a population growth factor.
Recession has caused EU countries to shrink the numbers of migrants. migrants return home, and those migrants had high fertility.
Immigration is singled out as the sole mitigating factor and is crucial to maintain population growth.