Scientific inquiry and the scientific method
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Scientific Inquiry and the Scientific Method. Understanding the World Around Us. Vocabulary Introduction. Observations/Facts you make with your senses that you know to be true . Quantitative : numbers Qualitative : descriptions that cannot be put in numbers. Vocabulary Introduction.

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Scientific Inquiry and the Scientific Method

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Scientific Inquiry and the Scientific Method

Understanding the World Around Us


Vocabulary Introduction

  • Observations/Facts you make with your senses that you know to be true.

  • Quantitative: numbers

  • Qualitative: descriptions that cannot be put in numbers


Vocabulary Introduction

  • A time-tested concept that makes predictions about the natural world. Once proposed, it must be tested over again. It may be thrown out or modified.


Vocabulary Introduction

  • If a theory survives many tests it becomes a law. It summarizes observed experimental facts.


Vocabulary Introduction

  • An explanation or interpretation of observations.

  • Inferences are based on reasoning, not random guessing


Vocabulary Introduction

  • A forecast of what will happen in the future

  • Based on past evidence or observations.


Vocabulary Introduction

  • Observations/Facts you make with your senses that you know to be true.

  • Quantitative: numbers

  • Qualitative: descriptions that cannot be put in numbers

  • A time-tested concept that makes predictions about the natural world. Once proposed, it must be tested over again. It may be thrown out or modified.

  • If a theory survives many tests it becomes a law. It summarizes observed experimental facts.


Vocabulary Introduction

  • An explanation or interpretation of observations.

  • Inferences are based on reasoning, not random guessing

  • A forecast of what will happen in the future

  • Based on past evidence or observations.


Steps of Scientific Inquiry

  • Uses senses to make observations.

  • Makes inferences or predictions based on observations.

  • Research the topic

  • Form a hypothesis

  • Design a controlled experiment to test the hypothesis

  • Perform the experiment and record data

  • Draw a conclusion

Hypothesis is Accepted

Hypothesis is Rejected

Becomes a Theory

Go back and redesign your hypothesis

Accepted many times and proven mathematically

Becomes a Law


Variable

The one part of an experiment that is manipulated by the scientist

Present in the experimental group, not present in the control group.

Example:

If you were testing the strength of different paper towels (like you did last year) the type of paper towel will be the variable.


A Controlled Experiment Has…

Control Group

  • Setup according to “normal” conditions

Experimental Group

  • Same as the Control Group, but with the variable

Important Points:

  • They are exactly the same except for the experimental group having the variable(the one difference)

  • The larger the sample size, the more accurate the results


What is the variable (the one difference between the groups)?


Hypothesis Formation

If

  • The conditions you are setting up (control group vs. experimental group)

Then

  • Your predicted results.

  • (what you think will happen)

Because

  • Your explanation for your predicted results. (why)


Independent Variable

  • The manipulated/experimental variable

  • This variable is the one you manipulate

  • What you the scientist can change

  • The responding variable

  • This is what you measure in the experiment

  • This variable’s value depends on the independent variable. It shows the results of your manipulation

Dependent

Variable


Experiment…

  • Does adding coffee grinds to plants help them grow faster?

  • Do people prefer Jerry’s Pizza or Lucio’s Pizza?

  • Dep:_____________

  • Ind:_____________

  • Dep:_____________

  • Ind:_____________


Data TablesTo Properly Create a Data Table

  • Title

    • The title must describe what is being done. It must be in the following form.

      The Relationship Between the Independent Variable and the Dependent Variable

  • Columns & Rows:

    • Determine the number of rows and columns

    • First row is for headings

    • 1st Column  Independent Variable

    • 2nd Column  Dependent Variable


Data Tables cont..To Properly Create a Data Table

  • Labels

    • Label each column (what does the data represent)

  • Units

    • Put units for the numbers

    • Example: ml, cm, etc…

  • Sort Data

    • Place in an order, either least to greatest or greatest to least.


  • Constructing a Graph

    The Relationship Between the Independent and the Dependent Variable

    Title

    Axis Labels and Units

    The independent variable goes on the x-axis (horizontal) and the dependent goes on the y-axis (vertical

    Dependent

    Variable

    Independent

    Variable


    Constructing a Graph cont..

    Line Graph vs. Bar Graph

    • Bar Graphs are used to graph information that is not continuous.

    • Example: Mrs. Fugarino believes that student’s behavior in class is directly related to the teacher’s hair color. She conducted a study and discovered the following results which are graphed below.


    Steps of Scientific Inquiry


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