Nutrition HO-15 Midterm Review
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Nutrients l.jpg
Nutrients

  • Nutrients

    • Water

    • Carbohydrates

    • Fat

    • Protein

    • Vitamins

    • Minerals


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Nutrients

  • Nutrients - Organic

    • Water

    • Carbohydrates

    • Fat

    • Protein

    • Vitamins

    • Minerals


Nutrients4 l.jpg
Nutrients

  • Nutrients - Energy Yielding

    • Water

    • Carbohydrates

    • Fat

    • Protein

    • Vitamins

    • Minerals


Nutrients5 l.jpg
Nutrients

  • Nutrients - Energy Yielding

    • Water

    • Carbohydrates 4 calories/g

    • Fat 9 calories/g

    • Protein 4 calories/g

    • Vitamins

    • Minerals


Nutrients6 l.jpg
Nutrients

  • Nutrients - Energy Yielding

    • Water

    • Carbohydrates

    • Fat

    • Protein

    • Vitamins

    • Minerals


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Nutrients

  • Nutrients - Energy Yielding

    Muffin 280 calories (45 g)

  • 15 g CHO 15X4 = 60 calories

  • 20 g fat 20X9 = 180 calories

  • 10 g protein 10X4 = 40 calories

    280 calories


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Recognizing a healthy diet

  • Adequacy - getting enough

  • Balance - proportionality

  • Moderation - nothing in excess

  • Variety - wide selection

  • Calorie Control - not too much or too little


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Research

  • Double blinded study

  • Placebo controlled

  • Intervention

  • Epidemiologic


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Research

  • Double blinded study

  • Placebo controlled

  • Interventional

  • Epidemiologic

Gold Standard: Double Blind Placebo Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial


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Nutrient Density

  • Muffin # 1

    • 280 calories

    • 20 g fat (15 g saturated fat)

    • 10 g sugar

    • Less than 2% daily value: Fe, Ca, Vit. A & C

  • Muffin #2

    • 200 calories

    • 15 g fat (2 g saturated fat)

    • 4 g sugar (10 g whole grain CHO)

    • 10-15% daily value: Fe, Ca Vit. A & C


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Macronutrients

Percent of Total Calories

Carbohydrates 45-65%

Fat 20-35%

Protein 10-35%

(10-15%)


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Macronutrients

Example:

Carbohydrates 45%

Fat 30%

Protein 25%

TOTAL 100%


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Phytochemicals

  • Biologically active substance in plants

  • Non-nutrient

  • May protect against chronic disease

  • Anti-oxidants

  • Example: Soy, chocolate, flaxseed, tomatoes, garlic, wine, tea


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Mouth

Stomach

Liver

Gallbladder

Pancreas

Small Intestine

Colon


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Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva

Stomach -

Liver -

Gallbladder -

Pancreas -

Small Intestine-

Colon -


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Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva

Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein

Liver -

Gallbladder -

Pancreas -

Small Intestine-

Colon -


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Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva

Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein

Liver - makes bile

Gallbladder -

Pancreas -

Small Intestine-

Colon -


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Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva

Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein

Liver - makes bile

Gallbladder - stores bile

Pancreas -

Small Intestine-

Colon -


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Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva

Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein

Liver - makes bile

Gallbladder - stores bile

Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes

Small Intestine-

Colon


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Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva

Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein

Liver - makes bile

Gallbladder - stores bile

Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes

Small Intestine-enzymes break down fat, protein, CHO & absorbed

Colon -


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Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva

Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein

Liver - makes bile

Gallbladder - stores bile

Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes

Small Intestine- enzymes break down fat, protein, CHO & absorbed

Colon - fluid and minerals absorption & some fiber fragments absorbed


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Storage Organs

When we eat too much……

  • Carbohydrate - it is stored as

  • Fat - it is stored as

  • Protein - it is stored as


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Storage Organs

When we eat too much……

  • Carbohydrate (glucose) - it is stored as

    • glycogen in liver and muscle

    • fat in adipose cells

  • Fat - it is stored as

  • Protein - it is stored as


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Storage Organs

When we eat too much……

  • Carbohydrate (glucose) - it is stored as

    • glycogen in liver and muscle

    • fat in adipose cells

  • Fat - it is stored as

    • Fat in adipose cells

  • Protein - it is stored as


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Storage Organs

When we eat too much……

  • Carbohydrate (glucose) - it is stored as

    • glycogen in liver and muscle

    • fat in adipose cells

  • Fat - it is stored as

    • Fat in adipose cells

  • Protein - it is stored as

    • Fat in adipose cells

      • Note: protein is not stored in the body


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Carbohydrates

  • Simple or Complex?


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Carbohydrates

  • Simple or Complex?

Simple!


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Simple Carbohydrates

Monosaccharides

Disaccharides


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Complex Carbohydrates

Starch

Fiber

Glycogen

fiber

glycogen




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Which part of the wheat kernel

has fiber? Bran

Which part of the wheat kernel has starch?


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Which part of the wheat kernel

has fiber? Bran

Which part of the wheat kernel has starch? Endosperm

Which part of the wheat kernel has nutrients & protein?


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Which part of the wheat kernel

has fiber? Bran

Which part of the wheat kernel has starch? Endosperm

Which part of the wheat kernel has nutrients & protein? Germ

Which part of the wheat kernel is not edible?


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Which part of the wheat kernel

has fiber? Bran

Which part of the wheat kernel has starch? Endosperm

Which part of the wheat kernel has nutrients & protein? Germ

Which part of the wheat kernel is not edible? Husk


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  • List the appropriate sequence of events which happen after you eat a plain white bagel:

    • I. Starch starts to breakdown into maltose in the mouth

    • II. Maltose breaks down into glucose in the small intestines

    • III. Glucose is absorbed from the small intestines into the bloodstream

    • IV. The pancreas secretes insulin in response to high blood glucose

    • V. Insulin transports glucose from the bloodstream into cells

    • VI. Blood glucose decreases


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Insulin & Glucose you eat a plain white bagel:

insulin

glucose

Insulin receptor

Glucose transported across cell


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Diabetes (Type I & II) you eat a plain white bagel:

  • Onset


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Diabetes (Type I & II) you eat a plain white bagel:

  • Onset

    • Type I - typically childhood

    • Type II - typically adulthood - recently seen developing in childhood


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Diabetes (Type I & II) you eat a plain white bagel:

  • Cause

    • Type I -

    • Type II -


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Diabetes (Type I & II) you eat a plain white bagel:

  • Cause

    • Type I - autoimmune disease, insulin secreting cells impaired

    • Type II - acquired, insulin resistance, obesity, genetics, diet


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Diabetes (Type I & II) you eat a plain white bagel:

  • Insulin secretion

    • Type I -

    • Type II -


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Diabetes (Type I & II) you eat a plain white bagel:

  • Insulin secretion

    • Type I - no natural insulin

    • Type II - enough or too much insulin


Lipids l.jpg
Lipids you eat a plain white bagel:

Triglycerides (TG)

  • ≈95% of all lipids in foods and the human body

  • Phospholipids

    • For example, lecithin

  • Sterols

    • For example, cholesterol

  • P


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    Fats you eat a plain white bagel:


    Percent of calories from fat l.jpg
    Percent of Calories from Fat you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Hamburger

      • 500 calories

      • 25 g saturated fat


    Percent of calories from fat50 l.jpg
    Percent of Calories from Fat you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Hamburger

      • 500 calories

      • 25 g saturated fat

        25 g X 9 calories/g = 225 calories


    Percent of calories from fat51 l.jpg
    Percent of Calories from Fat you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Hamburger

      • 500 calories

      • 25 g saturated fat

        25 g X 9 calories/g = 225 sf calories

        225 sf calories / 500 calories =

        .45 = 45%


    Percent of calories from fat52 l.jpg
    Percent of Calories from Fat you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Hamburger

      • 500 calories

      • 25 g saturated fat

        25 g X 9 calories/g = 225 calories

        225 calories / 500 calories = .45 = 45%

        45% of the calories in the burger are from saturated fat


    Ldl and hdl l.jpg
    LDL and HDL you eat a plain white bagel:

    • What is LDL?

    • What is HDL?

      They are not actually cholesterol!

      But people consider them cholesterol


    Ldl and hdl54 l.jpg
    LDL and HDL you eat a plain white bagel:

    • What is LDL?

      • Low density lipoprotein

      • Transports cholesterol to tissues

    • What is HDL?

      • High density lipoprotein

      • Scavenges cholesterol

        and brings it back to liver


    Ldl and hdl55 l.jpg
    LDL and HDL you eat a plain white bagel:

    • How do you lower LDL?

    • How do you increase HDL?


    Ldl and hdl56 l.jpg
    LDL and HDL you eat a plain white bagel:

    • How do you lower LDL?

      Lower your intake of saturated fat and trans fat

    • How do you increase HDL?

      Exercise


    Trans fats l.jpg
    Trans Fats you eat a plain white bagel:


    Essential fatty acids l.jpg
    Essential Fatty Acids you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Saturated fatty acid?

    • Monounsaturated fatty acid?

    • Polyunsaturated fatty acid?


    Essential fatty acids59 l.jpg
    Essential Fatty Acids you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Saturated fatty acid?

    • Monounsaturated fatty acid?

    • Polyunsaturated fatty acid?


    Structure of proteins l.jpg
    Structure of Proteins you eat a plain white bagel:

    • How do proteins differ from fats and carbohydrates in structure?


    Structure of proteins61 l.jpg
    Structure of Proteins you eat a plain white bagel:

    Peptide Bond


    Structure of proteins62 l.jpg
    Structure of Proteins you eat a plain white bagel:


    Roles of proteins l.jpg
    Roles of Proteins you eat a plain white bagel:

    Protein Functions

    • Enzymes

    • Hormones

    • Precursors (neurotransmitters/vitamins)

    • Antibodies

    • Fluid Balance

    • Buffers

    • Blood Clotting

    • Provide Energy


    Protein digestibility l.jpg
    Protein digestibility you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Which types of proteins are best absorbed by the body?


    Protein digestibility65 l.jpg
    Protein digestibility you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Digestion and absorption

      • Animal sources: ≈ 90+%

      • Legumes: ≈ 80%-90%

      • Grains: ≈ 70%-90%

      • Moist heat increases digestibility

      • Dry heat decreases digestibility


    Complementary proteins l.jpg
    Complementary Proteins you eat a plain white bagel:

    Amino acids from one protein source complement the amino acids from another protein source to form a complete protein.


    Wasting l.jpg
    Wasting you eat a plain white bagel:

    • When the amine group has been removed, it means the amino acid has been wasted


    Protein energy malnutrition l.jpg
    Protein Energy Malnutrition you eat a plain white bagel:


    Protein energy malnutrition69 l.jpg
    Protein Energy Malnutrition you eat a plain white bagel:

    Marasmus

    Chronic protein and energy deficiency

    Severe wasting

    Matchstick arms


    Protein energy malnutrition70 l.jpg
    Protein Energy Malnutrition you eat a plain white bagel:


    Protein energy malnutrition71 l.jpg
    Protein Energy Malnutrition you eat a plain white bagel:

    Kwashiorkor

    Protein malnutrition

    Acute onset (1-3 yr)

    Edema (legs/belly)

    Fatty liver


    Dri protein l.jpg
    DRI Protein you eat a plain white bagel:

    • DRI protein: example

      • 130 lb sedentary 35 yr female

      • 130 lb X 1kg/2.2 lb = 59 kg


    Dri protein73 l.jpg
    DRI Protein you eat a plain white bagel:

    • DRI protein: example

      • 130 lb sedentary 35 yr female

      • 130 lb X 1kg/2.2 lb = 59 kg

      • 59kg X 0.8g/kg = 47g protein/day


    Dri protein74 l.jpg
    DRI Protein you eat a plain white bagel:

    • DRI protein: example

      • 130 lb sedentary 35 yr female

      • 130 lb X 1kg/2.2 lb = 59 kg

      • 59kg X 0.8g/kg = 47g protein/day

      • 47g X 4 cal/g = 188 calories

      • 188 cal/1800 calories = 10 % total calories


    Dri protein75 l.jpg
    DRI Protein you eat a plain white bagel:

    • DRI protein: example

      • 130 lb sedentary 35 yr female

      • 130 lb X 1kg/2.2 lb = 59 kg

      • 59kg X 0.8g/kg = 47g protein/day

      • 47g X 4 cal/g = 188 calories

      • 188 cal/1800 calories = 10 % total calories

      • 10-15% of total calories from protein-most Americans

      • 10-35% of total calories


    What are the main functions of vitamin a l.jpg
    What are the main functions of Vitamin A? you eat a plain white bagel:

    .


    What are the main functions of vitamin a77 l.jpg
    What are the main functions of Vitamin A? you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Vision

    • Growth and maintenance

      • body linings and skin

      • For growth of bones and teeth

    • Immune defenses


    Slide78 l.jpg


    Slide79 l.jpg

    night blindness

    Keratinization



    Slide81 l.jpg

    Can toxicity develop from Vitamin A? you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Vitamin A? YES

    • From supplements or fortified foods

    • Beta-carotene? NO


    Slide82 l.jpg

    What are the roles of Vitamin D in the body? you eat a plain white bagel:


    Slide83 l.jpg

    What are the roles of Vitamin D in the body? you eat a plain white bagel:

    Regulation of blood calcium and phosphorus levels

    • raises blood calcium levels


    Vitamin d deficiency l.jpg
    Vitamin D Deficiency you eat a plain white bagel:

    What happens in Vitamin D deficiency?


    Vitamin d deficiency85 l.jpg
    Vitamin D Deficiency you eat a plain white bagel:

    RICKETS

    But most people are not receiving ENOUGH vitamin D because of the lack of sun exposure


    Slide86 l.jpg

    What are the best sources of Vitamin D? you eat a plain white bagel:


    Slide87 l.jpg

    What are the best sources of Vitamin D? you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Sunlight

    • Fortified milk

    • Cream, butter (small amounts)


    Slide88 l.jpg

    What is the main function of Vitamin E? you eat a plain white bagel:


    Slide89 l.jpg

    What is the main function of Vitamin E? you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Antioxidant:

    • quenches free radicals

    • protects cellular structures from oxidative damage


    Slide90 l.jpg

    What is the main function of Vitamin K? you eat a plain white bagel:


    Slide91 l.jpg

    What is the main function of Vitamin K? you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Synthesis of blood clotting proteins

      • Interferes with function of blood thinners

    • Synthesis of bone proteins

      • Adequate intake may reduce risk of hip fracture


    Slide92 l.jpg

    What are the roles of Vitamin C in the body? you eat a plain white bagel:


    Slide93 l.jpg

    What are the roles of Vitamin C in the body? you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Maintenance of connective tissues

      • Formation of collagen

    • Cofactor in the production of carnitine

    • Antioxidant

    • Restores Vitamin E to it’s active form

    • Supports the immune system

    • Boosts Iron absorption



    Vitamin c deficiency l.jpg
    Vitamin C Deficiency you eat a plain white bagel:

    Scurvy


    Slide96 l.jpg


    Slide97 l.jpg

    What is the main function of the B vitamins? you eat a plain white bagel:


    Slide98 l.jpg

    What is the main function of the B vitamins? you eat a plain white bagel:

    • part of coenzymes

      • Energy metabolism

      • New cell synthesis


    Slide99 l.jpg

    Thiamin deficiency results in what condition? you eat a plain white bagel:


    Slide100 l.jpg

    Thiamin deficiency results in what condition? you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Beriberi (affects nerves)

      • Loss of sensation in the hands and feet

      • muscular weakness

      • advancing paralysis


    Slide101 l.jpg

    What condition develops in Niacin deficiency? you eat a plain white bagel:


    Slide102 l.jpg

    What condition develops in Niacin deficiency? you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Pellagra

      • Diarrhea

      • Dermatitis

      • Dementia

      • Death


    Slide103 l.jpg

    • Source of Niacin you eat a plain white bagel:

      • Tryptophan can be converted to niacin

      • Tryptophan is in most proteins


    Folate deficiency l.jpg
    Folate Deficiency you eat a plain white bagel:

    What condition results from folate deficiency in pregnancy?


    Folate deficiency105 l.jpg
    Folate Deficiency you eat a plain white bagel:

    Neural tube defects

    Fortification of food is important - Most women don’t know they are pregnant for weeks



    Slide107 l.jpg

    What condition results from Vitamin B12 deficiency? you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Pernicious Anemia

    Is Pernicious Anemia more likely to develop from lack of intake or malabsorption?

    • Malabsorption

    • Absorption of Vitamin B12 requires intrinsic factor (IF)


    Slide108 l.jpg

    Who is at risk for Pernicious anemia? you eat a plain white bagel:


    Slide109 l.jpg

    Who is at risk for Pernicious anemia? you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Elderly - most at risk

    • Strict Vegetarians

    • Vitamin B12 is only found in animal sources


    Slide110 l.jpg

    Can Vitamin B6 can be toxic from supplements? you eat a plain white bagel:


    Slide111 l.jpg

    Can Vitamin B6 can be toxic from supplements? you eat a plain white bagel:Yes!

    • A single B6 supplement can deliver 2 grams of the vitamin, the equivalent of

      • 3,000 bananas

      • 3,800 chicken breasts

    • Toxicity UL: O.1 gram

      * numb hands and feet


    Calcium l.jpg
    Calcium you eat a plain white bagel:

    What other function does calcium have besides formation and maintenance of bone structure?


    Calcium115 l.jpg
    Calcium you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Nerve transmission

    • Transport of ions

    • Blood pressure

    • Blood clotting

    • Muscle contraction

      Most abundant mineral in the body


    Slide116 l.jpg

    Which mineral assists with muscle relaxation? you eat a plain white bagel:


    Slide117 l.jpg

    Which mineral assists with muscle relaxation? you eat a plain white bagel:

    Magnesium


    Slide118 l.jpg

    Which mineral is part of RNA and DNA? you eat a plain white bagel:


    Slide119 l.jpg

    Which mineral is part of RNA and DNA? you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Phosphorus

    • Part of phospholipids

    • Buffer

    • Release of energy

      • A T P

      • adenosine tri phosphate

    P


    Slide120 l.jpg

    What is the main extracellular cation? you eat a plain white bagel:

    What is the main intracellular cation?


    Slide121 l.jpg

    What is the main extracellular cation? you eat a plain white bagel:

    What is the main intracellular cation?

    Note: Chloride is an anion - intake is as NaCl(table salt)


    Sodium l.jpg
    Sodium you eat a plain white bagel:

    • Most people get too much much sodium

    • Usually from processed foods and fast food

    • Excess sodium does not cause hypertension - but increases risk


    Potassium l.jpg
    Potassium you eat a plain white bagel:

    • fluid and electrolyte balance, cell integrity, heartbeat

    • Diets high in potassium help decrease the risk of hypertension


    Slide124 l.jpg


    Slide125 l.jpg



    Slide127 l.jpg


    Slide128 l.jpg


    Iodine deficiency l.jpg
    Iodine Deficiency functional shape?

    Iodine deficiency can cause?


    Iodine deficiency130 l.jpg
    Iodine Deficiency functional shape?

    Iodine deficiency can cause?

    • Goiter

    • Iodine deficiency can cause cretinism

      • irreversible mental and physical retardation


    Iron absorption l.jpg
    Iron Absorption functional shape?

    What two forms are iron absorbed in?

    What is the absorption rate?


    Iron absorption132 l.jpg
    Iron Absorption functional shape?

    What two forms are iron absorbed in?

    What is the absorption rate?

    • Heme (~23%)

      • Animal sources

    • Non- heme (2-20%)

      • Plant and

      • animal sources

    Iron

    heme


    Increasing iron absorption l.jpg
    Increasing iron absorption functional shape?

    • MFP factor

      • Found in Meat, Fish, Poultry

    • Vitamin C


    Iron inhibitors l.jpg
    Iron Inhibitors functional shape?

    • Tannins

      • Found in tea and coffee

    • Calcium and phosphorus

      • Milk

    • Phytates

      • Found in the fiber of legumes and whole-grain cereals, breads


    Iron in meals l.jpg
    Iron in Meals functional shape?

    Roast beef sandwich on whole grain bread

    Scrambled eggs with a cup of coffee

    Spinach salad with a glass of orange juice

    Iron fortified whole grain cereal with low fat milk


    Slide136 l.jpg
    Zinc functional shape?

    • Important in:

      • wound healing

      • immune function


    Fluoride l.jpg
    Fluoride functional shape?

    Deficiency = dental carries

    Toxicity = Fluorosis


    Chromium l.jpg
    Chromium functional shape?

    Works with insulin to regulate blood glucose



    Selenium l.jpg
    Selenium functional shape?

    A mineral which is an antioxidant

    Note: Vitamin C & E are also antioxidants


    Slide141 l.jpg

    THE END functional shape?


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