slide1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
HO15 Midterm Review

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 141

HO15 Midterm Review - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 326 Views
  • Uploaded on

review

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'HO15 Midterm Review' - cdobrowolski


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
nutrients
Nutrients
  • Nutrients
      • Water
      • Carbohydrates
      • Fat
      • Protein
      • Vitamins
      • Minerals
nutrients3
Nutrients
  • Nutrients - Organic
      • Water
      • Carbohydrates
      • Fat
      • Protein
      • Vitamins
      • Minerals
nutrients4
Nutrients
  • Nutrients - Energy Yielding
      • Water
      • Carbohydrates
      • Fat
      • Protein
      • Vitamins
      • Minerals
nutrients5
Nutrients
  • Nutrients - Energy Yielding
      • Water
      • Carbohydrates 4 calories/g
      • Fat 9 calories/g
      • Protein 4 calories/g
      • Vitamins
      • Minerals
nutrients6
Nutrients
  • Nutrients - Energy Yielding
    • Water
    • Carbohydrates
    • Fat
    • Protein
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
nutrients7
Nutrients
  • Nutrients - Energy Yielding

Muffin 280 calories (45 g)

  • 15 g CHO 15X4 = 60 calories
  • 20 g fat 20X9 = 180 calories
  • 10 g protein 10X4 = 40 calories

280 calories

recognizing a healthy diet
Recognizing a healthy diet
  • Adequacy - getting enough
  • Balance - proportionality
  • Moderation - nothing in excess
  • Variety - wide selection
  • Calorie Control - not too much or too little
research
Research
  • Double blinded study
  • Placebo controlled
  • Intervention
  • Epidemiologic
research10
Research
  • Double blinded study
  • Placebo controlled
  • Interventional
  • Epidemiologic

Gold Standard: Double Blind Placebo Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial

nutrient density
Nutrient Density
  • Muffin # 1
    • 280 calories
    • 20 g fat (15 g saturated fat)
    • 10 g sugar
    • Less than 2% daily value: Fe, Ca, Vit. A & C
  • Muffin #2
    • 200 calories
    • 15 g fat (2 g saturated fat)
    • 4 g sugar (10 g whole grain CHO)
    • 10-15% daily value: Fe, Ca Vit. A & C
macronutrients
Macronutrients

Percent of Total Calories

Carbohydrates 45-65%

Fat 20-35%

Protein 10-35%

(10-15%)

macronutrients13
Macronutrients

Example:

Carbohydrates 45%

Fat 30%

Protein 25%

TOTAL 100%

phytochemicals
Phytochemicals
  • Biologically active substance in plants
  • Non-nutrient
  • May protect against chronic disease
  • Anti-oxidants
  • Example: Soy, chocolate, flaxseed, tomatoes, garlic, wine, tea
slide16

Mouth

Stomach

Liver

Gallbladder

Pancreas

Small Intestine

Colon

slide17

Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva

Stomach -

Liver -

Gallbladder -

Pancreas -

Small Intestine-

Colon -

slide18

Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva

Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein

Liver -

Gallbladder -

Pancreas -

Small Intestine-

Colon -

slide19

Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva

Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein

Liver - makes bile

Gallbladder -

Pancreas -

Small Intestine-

Colon -

slide20

Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva

Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein

Liver - makes bile

Gallbladder - stores bile

Pancreas -

Small Intestine-

Colon -

slide21

Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva

Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein

Liver - makes bile

Gallbladder - stores bile

Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes

Small Intestine-

Colon

slide22

Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva

Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein

Liver - makes bile

Gallbladder - stores bile

Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes

Small Intestine-enzymes break down fat, protein, CHO & absorbed

Colon -

slide23

Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva

Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein

Liver - makes bile

Gallbladder - stores bile

Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes

Small Intestine- enzymes break down fat, protein, CHO & absorbed

Colon - fluid and minerals absorption & some fiber fragments absorbed

storage organs
Storage Organs

When we eat too much……

  • Carbohydrate - it is stored as
  • Fat - it is stored as
  • Protein - it is stored as
storage organs25
Storage Organs

When we eat too much……

  • Carbohydrate (glucose) - it is stored as
    • glycogen in liver and muscle
    • fat in adipose cells
  • Fat - it is stored as
  • Protein - it is stored as
storage organs26
Storage Organs

When we eat too much……

  • Carbohydrate (glucose) - it is stored as
    • glycogen in liver and muscle
    • fat in adipose cells
  • Fat - it is stored as
    • Fat in adipose cells
  • Protein - it is stored as
storage organs27
Storage Organs

When we eat too much……

  • Carbohydrate (glucose) - it is stored as
    • glycogen in liver and muscle
    • fat in adipose cells
  • Fat - it is stored as
    • Fat in adipose cells
  • Protein - it is stored as
    • Fat in adipose cells
      • Note: protein is not stored in the body
carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
  • Simple or Complex?
carbohydrates29
Carbohydrates
  • Simple or Complex?

Simple!

simple carbohydrates
Simple Carbohydrates

Monosaccharides

Disaccharides

complex carbohydrates
Complex Carbohydrates

Starch

Fiber

Glycogen

fiber

glycogen

slide35

Which part of the wheat kernel

has fiber? Bran

Which part of the wheat kernel has starch?

slide36

Which part of the wheat kernel

has fiber? Bran

Which part of the wheat kernel has starch? Endosperm

Which part of the wheat kernel has nutrients & protein?

slide37

Which part of the wheat kernel

has fiber? Bran

Which part of the wheat kernel has starch? Endosperm

Which part of the wheat kernel has nutrients & protein? Germ

Which part of the wheat kernel is not edible?

slide38

Which part of the wheat kernel

has fiber? Bran

Which part of the wheat kernel has starch? Endosperm

Which part of the wheat kernel has nutrients & protein? Germ

Which part of the wheat kernel is not edible? Husk

slide39

List the appropriate sequence of events which happen after you eat a plain white bagel:

    • I. Starch starts to breakdown into maltose in the mouth
    • II. Maltose breaks down into glucose in the small intestines
    • III. Glucose is absorbed from the small intestines into the bloodstream
    • IV. The pancreas secretes insulin in response to high blood glucose
    • V. Insulin transports glucose from the bloodstream into cells
    • VI. Blood glucose decreases
insulin glucose
Insulin & Glucose

insulin

glucose

Insulin receptor

Glucose transported across cell

diabetes type i ii42
Diabetes (Type I & II)
  • Onset
    • Type I - typically childhood
    • Type II - typically adulthood - recently seen developing in childhood
diabetes type i ii43
Diabetes (Type I & II)
  • Cause
    • Type I -
    • Type II -
diabetes type i ii44
Diabetes (Type I & II)
  • Cause
    • Type I - autoimmune disease, insulin secreting cells impaired
    • Type II - acquired, insulin resistance, obesity, genetics, diet
diabetes type i ii45
Diabetes (Type I & II)
  • Insulin secretion
    • Type I -
    • Type II -
diabetes type i ii46
Diabetes (Type I & II)
  • Insulin secretion
    • Type I - no natural insulin
    • Type II - enough or too much insulin
lipids
Lipids

Triglycerides (TG)

    • ≈95% of all lipids in foods and the human body
  • Phospholipids
    • For example, lecithin
  • Sterols
    • For example, cholesterol

P

percent of calories from fat
Percent of Calories from Fat
  • Hamburger
    • 500 calories
    • 25 g saturated fat
percent of calories from fat50
Percent of Calories from Fat
  • Hamburger
    • 500 calories
    • 25 g saturated fat

25 g X 9 calories/g = 225 calories

percent of calories from fat51
Percent of Calories from Fat
  • Hamburger
    • 500 calories
    • 25 g saturated fat

25 g X 9 calories/g = 225 sf calories

225 sf calories / 500 calories =

.45 = 45%

percent of calories from fat52
Percent of Calories from Fat
  • Hamburger
    • 500 calories
    • 25 g saturated fat

25 g X 9 calories/g = 225 calories

225 calories / 500 calories = .45 = 45%

45% of the calories in the burger are from saturated fat

ldl and hdl
LDL and HDL
  • What is LDL?
  • What is HDL?

They are not actually cholesterol!

But people consider them cholesterol

ldl and hdl54
LDL and HDL
  • What is LDL?
    • Low density lipoprotein
    • Transports cholesterol to tissues
  • What is HDL?
    • High density lipoprotein
    • Scavenges cholesterol

and brings it back to liver

ldl and hdl55
LDL and HDL
  • How do you lower LDL?
  • How do you increase HDL?
ldl and hdl56
LDL and HDL
  • How do you lower LDL?

Lower your intake of saturated fat and trans fat

  • How do you increase HDL?

Exercise

essential fatty acids
Essential Fatty Acids
  • Saturated fatty acid?
  • Monounsaturated fatty acid?
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acid?
essential fatty acids59
Essential Fatty Acids
  • Saturated fatty acid?
  • Monounsaturated fatty acid?
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acid?
structure of proteins
Structure of Proteins
  • How do proteins differ from fats and carbohydrates in structure?
roles of proteins
Roles of Proteins

Protein Functions

  • Enzymes
  • Hormones
  • Precursors (neurotransmitters/vitamins)
  • Antibodies
  • Fluid Balance
  • Buffers
  • Blood Clotting
  • Provide Energy
protein digestibility
Protein digestibility
  • Which types of proteins are best absorbed by the body?
protein digestibility65
Protein digestibility
  • Digestion and absorption
      • Animal sources: ≈ 90+%
      • Legumes: ≈ 80%-90%
      • Grains: ≈ 70%-90%
      • Moist heat increases digestibility
      • Dry heat decreases digestibility
complementary proteins
Complementary Proteins

Amino acids from one protein source complement the amino acids from another protein source to form a complete protein.

wasting
Wasting
  • When the amine group has been removed, it means the amino acid has been wasted
protein energy malnutrition69
Protein Energy Malnutrition

Marasmus

Chronic protein and energy deficiency

Severe wasting

Matchstick arms

protein energy malnutrition71
Protein Energy Malnutrition

Kwashiorkor

Protein malnutrition

Acute onset (1-3 yr)

Edema (legs/belly)

Fatty liver

dri protein
DRI Protein
  • DRI protein: example
    • 130 lb sedentary 35 yr female
    • 130 lb X 1kg/2.2 lb = 59 kg
dri protein73
DRI Protein
  • DRI protein: example
    • 130 lb sedentary 35 yr female
    • 130 lb X 1kg/2.2 lb = 59 kg
    • 59kg X 0.8g/kg = 47g protein/day
dri protein74
DRI Protein
  • DRI protein: example
    • 130 lb sedentary 35 yr female
    • 130 lb X 1kg/2.2 lb = 59 kg
    • 59kg X 0.8g/kg = 47g protein/day
    • 47g X 4 cal/g = 188 calories
    • 188 cal/1800 calories = 10 % total calories
dri protein75
DRI Protein
  • DRI protein: example
    • 130 lb sedentary 35 yr female
    • 130 lb X 1kg/2.2 lb = 59 kg
    • 59kg X 0.8g/kg = 47g protein/day
    • 47g X 4 cal/g = 188 calories
    • 188 cal/1800 calories = 10 % total calories
    • 10-15% of total calories from protein-most Americans
    • 10-35% of total calories
what are the main functions of vitamin a77
What are the main functions of Vitamin A?
  • Vision
  • Growth and maintenance
    • body linings and skin
    • For growth of bones and teeth
  • Immune defenses
slide79

What happens in Vitamin A deficiency?

night blindness

Keratinization

slide81

Can toxicity develop from Vitamin A?

  • Vitamin A? YES
  • From supplements or fortified foods
  • Beta-carotene? NO
slide83

What are the roles of Vitamin D in the body?

Regulation of blood calcium and phosphorus levels

  • raises blood calcium levels
vitamin d deficiency
Vitamin D Deficiency

What happens in Vitamin D deficiency?

vitamin d deficiency85
Vitamin D Deficiency

RICKETS

But most people are not receiving ENOUGH vitamin D because of the lack of sun exposure

slide87

What are the best sources of Vitamin D?

  • Sunlight
  • Fortified milk
  • Cream, butter (small amounts)
slide89

What is the main function of Vitamin E?

  • Antioxidant:
  • quenches free radicals
  • protects cellular structures from oxidative damage
slide91

What is the main function of Vitamin K?

  • Synthesis of blood clotting proteins
    • Interferes with function of blood thinners
  • Synthesis of bone proteins
    • Adequate intake may reduce risk of hip fracture
slide93

What are the roles of Vitamin C in the body?

  • Maintenance of connective tissues
    • Formation of collagen
  • Cofactor in the production of carnitine
  • Antioxidant
  • Restores Vitamin E to it’s active form
  • Supports the immune system
  • Boosts Iron absorption
slide96

Does not prevent colds

  • Vitamin C reduces histamine
slide98

What is the main function of the B vitamins?

  • part of coenzymes
    • Energy metabolism
    • New cell synthesis
slide100

Thiamin deficiency results in what condition?

  • Beriberi (affects nerves)
    • Loss of sensation in the hands and feet
    • muscular weakness
    • advancing paralysis
slide102

What condition develops in Niacin deficiency?

  • Pellagra
    • Diarrhea
    • Dermatitis
    • Dementia
    • Death
slide103

Source of Niacin

    • Tryptophan can be converted to niacin
    • Tryptophan is in most proteins
folate deficiency
Folate Deficiency

What condition results from folate deficiency in pregnancy?

folate deficiency105
Folate Deficiency

Neural tube defects

Fortification of food is important - Most women don’t know they are pregnant for weeks

slide107

What condition results from Vitamin B12 deficiency?

  • Pernicious Anemia

Is Pernicious Anemia more likely to develop from lack of intake or malabsorption?

  • Malabsorption
  • Absorption of Vitamin B12 requires intrinsic factor (IF)
slide109

Who is at risk for Pernicious anemia?

  • Elderly - most at risk
  • Strict Vegetarians
  • Vitamin B12 is only found in animal sources
slide111

Can Vitamin B6 can be toxic from supplements?Yes!

  • A single B6 supplement can deliver 2 grams of the vitamin, the equivalent of
    • 3,000 bananas
    • 3,800 chicken breasts
  • Toxicity UL: O.1 gram

* numb hands and feet

calcium
Calcium

What other function does calcium have besides formation and maintenance of bone structure?

calcium115
Calcium
  • Nerve transmission
  • Transport of ions
  • Blood pressure
  • Blood clotting
  • Muscle contraction

Most abundant mineral in the body

slide119

Which mineral is part of RNA and DNA?

  • Phosphorus
  • Part of phospholipids
  • Buffer
  • Release of energy
    • A T P
    • adenosine tri phosphate

P

slide120

What is the main extracellular cation?

What is the main intracellular cation?

slide121

What is the main extracellular cation?

What is the main intracellular cation?

Note: Chloride is an anion - intake is as NaCl(table salt)

sodium
Sodium
  • Most people get too much much sodium
  • Usually from processed foods and fast food
  • Excess sodium does not cause hypertension - but increases risk
potassium
Potassium
  • fluid and electrolyte balance, cell integrity, heartbeat
  • Diets high in potassium help decrease the risk of hypertension
slide124

Which mineral is needed for some proteins to assume their functional shape?

    • makes the proteins strong
    • through certain bonds
slide125

Which mineral is needed for some proteins to assume their functional shape?

    • makes the proteins strong
    • through certain bonds
  • Sulfate
slide127

Which mineral is a component of thyroxine?

    • Iodine
  • Thyroxine regulates what?
slide128

Which mineral is a component of thyroxine?

    • Iodine
  • Thyroxine regulates what?
    • metabolism
iodine deficiency
Iodine Deficiency

Iodine deficiency can cause?

iodine deficiency130
Iodine Deficiency

Iodine deficiency can cause?

  • Goiter
  • Iodine deficiency can cause cretinism
    • irreversible mental and physical retardation
iron absorption
Iron Absorption

What two forms are iron absorbed in?

What is the absorption rate?

iron absorption132
Iron Absorption

What two forms are iron absorbed in?

What is the absorption rate?

  • Heme (~23%)
    • Animal sources
  • Non- heme (2-20%)
    • Plant and
    • animal sources

Iron

heme

increasing iron absorption
Increasing iron absorption
  • MFP factor
    • Found in Meat, Fish, Poultry
  • Vitamin C
iron inhibitors
Iron Inhibitors
  • Tannins
    • Found in tea and coffee
  • Calcium and phosphorus
    • Milk
  • Phytates
    • Found in the fiber of legumes and whole-grain cereals, breads
iron in meals
Iron in Meals

Roast beef sandwich on whole grain bread

Scrambled eggs with a cup of coffee

Spinach salad with a glass of orange juice

Iron fortified whole grain cereal with low fat milk

slide136
Zinc
  • Important in:
    • wound healing
    • immune function
fluoride
Fluoride

Deficiency = dental carries

Toxicity = Fluorosis

chromium
Chromium

Works with insulin to regulate blood glucose

selenium
Selenium

A mineral which is an antioxidant

Note: Vitamin C & E are also antioxidants

ad