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Use of the Hardened Subminiature Telemetry and Sensor System (HSTSS) Technologies in NASA’s Space Shuttle Transportation System Upgrades PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Use of the Hardened Subminiature Telemetry and Sensor System (HSTSS) Technologies in NASA’s Space Shuttle Transportation System Upgrades. Robert E. Carpenter, PE HSTSS Systems Engineer U.S. Army STRICOM PM-ITTS/IMO Advanced Systems Technology, Inc. Peter T. Johnson

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Use of the Hardened Subminiature Telemetry and Sensor System (HSTSS) Technologies in NASA’s Space Shuttle Transportation System Upgrades

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Slide1 l.jpg

Use of the Hardened Subminiature Telemetry and Sensor System (HSTSS) Technologies in NASA’s Space Shuttle Transportation System Upgrades

Robert E. Carpenter, PE

HSTSS Systems Engineer

U.S. Army STRICOM PM-ITTS/IMO

Advanced Systems Technology, Inc.

  • Peter T. Johnson

  • Orbiter Instrumentation/Space Shuttle Upgrades

  • NASA/John F. Kennedy Space Center

  • 1

    P12


    Shuttle upgrade program needs l.jpg

    Shuttle Upgrade Program Needs:

    • Quickly instrument locations within NASA’s Space Shuttle that had never been considered to be areas of interest by the first generation Shuttle analysts.

      • Instrument aging Shuttle systems

        • Determine Sources of Unexplained Occurrences

        • Measure Aging Effects

        • Upgrade large obsolete electronics

      • Instrument Shuttle Upgrade Installations

        • Current Instrumentation System (Modular Auxiliary Data System (MADS) has limited capacity.

      • Add instrumentation to Get Away Specials and Hitchhiker Educational Experiments.

    2

    P12


    Need for distributed system l.jpg

    Need for Distributed System

    • The existing instrumentation system utilized on the Shuttle uses miles of copper wire to connect remote sensors to centrally located signal conditioning and digitizing hardware. The nature of HSTSS lends itself to distributed systems, wherein an area is instrumented, signal conditioned, and converted to a telemetry stream, which is then routed to a central location for archival or transmission over a single signal line.

    3

    P12


    Slide4 l.jpg

    Orbiter Instrumentation Hardware Location

    • 1: FWD AVIONICS BAY 1

      • DEDICATED SIG COND (1)

      • OI MDM

      • PCMMU No. 1

      • PAYLOAD TAPE RECORDER

      • PDI

    • 3: FWD AVIONICS BAY 3A

      • DEDICATED SIG COND (1)

      • OI MDM (1)

    • 4: FWD AVIONICS BAY 3B

      • MASTER TIMING UNIT

    • 8: AFT AVIONICS BAY 5

      • DEDICATED SIG COND (1)

      • OI MDM

      • W/B SIG COND (2)

    • 9: AFT AVIONICS BAY 6

      • DEDICATED SIG COND (1)

      • OI MDM

    • 5: FWD RCS OI DSC (1)

    • 6. FLT DECK OI MDM

    • 7: AFT AVIONICS BAY 4

      • DEDICATED SIG COND (1)

      • OI MDM

      • W/B SIG COND (4)

    • 2: FWD AVIONICS BAY 2

      • DEDICATED SIG COND (1)

      • OI MDM (1)

      • PCMMU No. 2

      • OPS TAPE RECORDER No. 1

      • OPS TAPE RECORDER No. 2

    10: OMS DSC (4)

    11: FUEL CELL DSC (3)

    4

    P12


    Slide5 l.jpg

    OPERATIONAL INSTRUMENTATION SUBSYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM

    {

    {

    }

    128K

    Data &

    Clock

    NSP 2

    Data &

    Clock

    PCM 2

    S-Band XPNDR

    or Ku SIG PROC

    T-O

    Umb

    128/192

    kbps/Voice

    64K

    T-O

    Umb

    Voice

    ·

    128 kbps

    64 kbps

    100 Hz

    NETWORK

    SIGNAL

    PROCESSOR

    1

    PCMMU

    1

    OPS 1

    REC

    KU

    SIGNAL

    PROC

    ·

    RF

    Link

    GPC

    1

    ·

    1.152 MHz

    Data

    P/L

    Port

    0I Port

    T-O

    Umb

    ·

    GPC

    2

    COMSEC

    Spacelab

    T-O

    Umb

    {

    4.608 MHz

    PAYLOAD

    REC

    PSP1

    Payload

    Data

    EIU (3)

    GPC Bus

    ·

    PDI

    PSP2

    GMT

    ·

    GPC

    3

    OTB

    Time

    MTU

    ·

    MET

    P/L 5

    P/L

    Station

    Spacelab

    PTB

    4.608 MHz

    COMSEC

    FM SIG

    PROC

    GPC

    4

    Data

    1.152 MHz

    100 Hz

    ·

    P/L

    Port

    NETWORK

    SIGNAL

    PROCESSOR

    2

    FM SIG.

    PROC.

    RF

    Link

    PCMMU

    2

    OPS 2

    REC

    64 kbps

    128 kbps

    ·

    GPC

    5

    0I

    Port

    Voice

    ·

    128/192

    kbps/Voice

    }

    {

    Data &

    Clock

    NSP 1

    Data &

    Clock

    PCM 1

    64K

    {

    T-O

    Umb

    S-Band XPNDR

    or Ku SIG PROC

    OI Data Bus 2

    OI Data Bus 1

    128K

    ·

    ·

    ·

    ·

    ·

    ·

    ·

    ·

    ·

    MDM

    OF1

    MDM

    OF2

    MDM

    OF3

    MDM

    OF4

    MDM

    OA1

    MDM

    OA2

    MDM

    OA3

    OF2

    ·

    SGSC

    TIRE

    PRESS

    SGSC

    TIRE

    PRESS

    SGSC

    TIRE

    PRESS

    SGSC

    TIRE

    PRESS

    WBSC (4 VMS

    OF2

    WBSC (2 VMS

    OA01

    OA03

    DSC

    OM2

    OM3

    DSC

    OF2

    DSC

    OF1

    OF4

    DSC

    OF3

    DSC

    EDO1

    DSC

    OM1

    OM2

    OM3

    DSC

    OA1

    OL1

    DSC

    OA2

    OR1

    DSC

    OA3

    OL2

    OR2

    DSC

    OM1

    OM2

    DSC

    OM2

    0M3

    DSC

    OM1

    OM2

    OM3

    DSC

    OM1

    OM2

    OM3

    DSC

    EDO2

    1. SENSOR AND SUBSYSTEM INPUTS ARE ROUTED TO DSC’s AND MDM’s.

    2.. ALL DSC’S EXCEPT OM3 HAVE MEASUREMENTS ROUTED TO C/W AND DISPLAY.

    3. ALL DSC’S EXCEPT OM2, OM3, ED01, AND ED02 HAVE MEASUREMENTS ROUTED TO FLIGHT CRITICAL MDM’S. (FF OR FA MDM’S)

    5

    P12


    Instrumentation toolkit l.jpg

    Instrumentation “Toolkit”

    • Shuttle Instrumentation engineers need a “toolkit” of high performance, low mass, low power subminiature instrumentation hardware.

      • MEMS sensors

      • Systems on a Chip

      • Programmable Devices

    6

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    Toolkit requirements l.jpg

    “Toolkit” Requirements

    • small size, weight, power requirements

    • simple installation

    • minimize mechanical, electrical impacts

    • distributed system

    • feed encoded signal to a central device for interleaving, processing, transmitting, or archival.

    • space certified (or at least space certifiable)

    • robust and easily configurable.

    • fit existing shuttle telemetry requirements and anticipated future telemetry needs.

    • be low cost

      • temporary or limited use installations

        The end goal is to determine the ability of the system described above to meet the needs of other, more critical systems.

    7

    P12


    Hstss program overview l.jpg

    HSTSS Program Overview

    • Develop and demonstrate enabling technologies required to complete advanced instrumentation requirements of future Army, Navy, and Air Force munitions.

    • The HSTSS program is developing and high-g qualifying subminiature sensors and instrumentation parts and packages to invoke a high volume, low cost production path suitable for COTS processes required in current military development and re-capitalization efforts.

    • HSTSS goals are accomplished by combining capabilities of the armed services and industry, invoking the processes of effective Integrated Product Teams and partnering agreements.

    • As smart weapons (munitions and missiles) become increasingly complex, it is necessary to obtain sufficient critical data throughout a munition life cycle to successfully complete development, diagnostic, training and tactical applications. Projectile aerodynamic characterization, evaluation of guidance and maneuver systems, and measures-of-truth for Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) are examples of needed measurement capabilities.

    8

    P12


    Hstss characteristics l.jpg

    Fig. 2: Complete Telemetry system, installed in

    The tracer well of a kinetic energy penetrator rod

    Digital Data

    Antenna

    Sensor

    Signal

    Conditioningand

    Multiplexing

    PCM

    Encoder

    FM

    Transmitter

    Sensor

    Sensor

    Power supply (battery)

    Fig 1: Block Diagram of a typical PCM/FM Telemetry System

    HSTSS Characteristics

    • HSTSS technologies include sensors, data acquisition chipsets (signal conditioning, multiplexing, and encoding), telemetry transmitters, antennae, high-g/high-density electronics packaging technologies, and power sources.

    • HSTSS technologies are available in modules, packaged IC’s, and bare die.

    • HSTSS technologies must survive and operate in the harsh environments that weapon systems experience during launch, flight, and impact. HSTSS supported direct fire munitions testing (figure 2), volume of one cubic inch, accelerations of over 65,000 g’s.

    9

    P12


    Shuttle hstss project description initial experiment l.jpg

    Shuttle/HSTSS Project Description (Initial Experiment)

    The initial collaborative project between NASA and the HSTSS program is intended to verify the viability of HSTSS applicability and efficacy. To accomplish this, a 19-channel PCM instrumentation system comprising an encoder, signal conditioning and multiplexing will be utilized. Sensor inputs will include a combination of existing Orbiter devices and HSTSS or COTS MEMS accelerometers, temperature, and pressure sensors. The HSTSS devices will be packaged in a suitable mounting for installation inside the wing, aft, or payload bay of the Space Shuttle, with other locations to be determined. This system will comprise a programmable “system on a chip” with sensor and digital data inputs. System power (5 volts) will be derived from the Shuttle 28 Vdc power system. Output will be a PCM stream that will either be recorded on-board, mixed into shuttle telemetry, or transmitted to a local receiver. The system will operate over several or all flight phases on multiple missions to accurately gauge the reliability of the system. Cross correlation of the resulting data with existing Orbiter instrumentation will further validate the results. This project is intended to fly in the mid ’02 timeframe in location that is presently under assessment. Part of the demonstration is to implement the entire system within an unreasonably short timeframe (6 to 15 months from recognition of need (perceived or real)) to flight.

    10

    P12


    Slide11 l.jpg

    Potential Proof of Concept Implementations

    • Mobile Launch Platform (MLP) - Environment assessment for future implementation of high speed network interface electronic equipment installation.

    • Orbiter Payload Bay

      • Environmental measurements beyond standard services that the Orbiter presently provides.

      • Unanticipated structural responses relating to ISS activities.

    • Provide a toolkit to educators flying low cost Hitchhiker and Get Away Special (GSA) experiments.

    • Orbiter Aft

      • Many need upgrades going into the Orbiter aft:

        • Advanced Health Management System (AHMS)

        • Electric Auxiliary Power Unit (EAPU)

  • Provide a means to quickly acquire environmental assessment of an installation package - either before or after installation.

  • 11

    P12


    Ksc orbiter upgrades commitment l.jpg

    KSC Orbiter Upgrades Commitment

    • Agreement from the KSC Spaceport Engineering and Technology Office to support an HSTSS based experiment in conjunction with Program Manager Instrumentation Targets and Threats Simulators – Instrumentation Management Office, U.S. Army STRICOM.

      • Fly in the mid ’02 timeframe in location that is presently under assessment. Part of the demonstration is to implement the entire system (less the BRSS Paperwork documentation process) within an unreasonably short timeframe (6 to 15 months from recognition of need (perceived or real) to flight.

    12

    P12


    Chip on board fpga encoder l.jpg

    Chip-On-Board FPGA Encoder

    13

    P12


    Programmable pcm asic l.jpg

    4 analog channels

    expandable to 128 using the SCIC-DVC-101

    12 bit A/D converter (480 KSPS)

    User configurable including sub-commutation and super commutation

    3 Digital Configurable Ports (16-bit inputs)

    Serial Input Port (115K baud)

    PCM NRZ-L or RNRZ-L (IRIG-106) output

    Selectable internal/external clock

    Provides time delay with external memory

    Single 5 Volt Operation

    176 Lead Thin Quad Flatpack

    Available In Die Form

    Developed for HSTSS by Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation, Austin, TX.

    Programmable PCM ASIC

    14

    P12


    Input signal conditioner isc asic l.jpg

    16 Analog Inputs

    User Configurable

    Programmable Gain and Offset

    Programmable 4 or 8 pole filtering

    Over Voltage Protection

    Five (5) Volt Operation, 11mA per channel used (worst case app. 900mW w/16channels)

    Available in TQFP or in die Form

    The Input Signal Conditioner (ISC) ASIC provides 16 analog input channels that can be independently amplified, offset, and filtered. The 16 channels are then multiplexed into one analog channel for output. The channel gain, offset, and filtering bandwidth are channel independent and digitally controlled through a configuration interface. Developed by SPEC for HSTSS.

    Input Signal Conditioner (ISC) ASIC

    15

    P12


    Delay repeater dr asic l.jpg

    Programmable Time Delay

    Loop Operating Mode

    Up To 3 Analog Inputs

    Optional Playback at Reduced Rates

    175ms Maximum Delay With External Memory

    5 Volt Operation

    Available in TQFP or in die Form

    The Delay/Repeater provides three channels of delayed or delayed and repeated analog signals with a bandwidth range of 0 to 60 kHz. The DAC Delay/Repeater provides up to 20 ms of time delay in 5 ms increments on-chip. Delay of up to 175 ms can be supported using an external COTS SRAM. The digitized outputs of the A/D converters (12 bits at 150 KSPS) are bussed and written to internal memory (3 channels x 12 bits x 150 KSPS x 0.02 sec = 108 Kbits) or external memory interface (256K x 8 bits SRAM). After the data is read from memory, it is fed into three independent digital-to-analog (D/A) converters for signal reconstruction. Output filters remove spurs generated by the D/A converter. Developed by SPEC for HSTSS.

    Delay/Repeater (DR) ASIC

    16

    P12


    Packaging of dac asic s l.jpg

    TQFP Package – cut-away view

    SPEC Delay/Repeater (Packaged TQFP and Die)

    Packaging of DAC ASIC’s

    17

    P12


    Mems devices l.jpg

    MEMS accelerometers and rate sensors developed for automotive and consumer electronics industries have been under evaluation by the HSTSS program for use in high shock military applications. These very inexpensive COTS products are extremely rugged and perform admirably, far exceeding their original industrial requirements. HSTSS uses include measurement of body-fixed axial/radial accelerations, drag, thrust, etc. for use in in-flight aerodynamic characterization and in-bore environment characterization, muzzle exit vibration, muzzle velocity determination.

    MEMS Devices

    Analog Devices ARS-60 Rate Grade Sensor Package

    (0.35 inch foot print)

    Analog Devices ADXL series accelerometers, shock qualified to 30 Kg’s. Single and multi axis.

    HSTSS Accelerometer Flight Data gathered in-bore during launch.

    18

    P12


    Pressure transducer l.jpg

    Pressure Transducer

    Processed PZT wafer

    The objective of the HSTSS pressure sensor development efforts is to design, fabricate, and test a high-g PZT MEMS pressure sensor for the Test and Evaluation community so that a rugged flight worthy instrument can aid in the test and evaluation of the current and developmental weaponry. Such a system will provide miniaturized, high-g survivable pressure sensors that could be used in a variety of harsh environments. This project is executed through a partnership between HSTSS, ARL-WMRD, JHU-APL, ATC (DARPA Funded Program). It is suggested that this type of non-ported pressure sensor may be useful for instrumenting Space Shuttle Orbiter external surfaces.

    19

    P12


    Hstss transmitter l.jpg

    HSTSS Transmitter

    20

    P12


    High density packaging l.jpg

    Stacked Die mounted on MCM

    High Density Packaging

    • Objectives:

      • Evaluate microelectronics assembly techniques for ballistic environment

        • Establish boundaries

        • Adopt & modify commercial techniques

      • Evaluate substrate technologies

      • Evaluate interconnection schemes between substrates

      • Explore advanced packaging techniques

      • Conduct demonstrations using HSTSS products

    • HSTSS Partners

      • John Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL)

      • Microelectronics & Computer Technology Corp. (MCC)

    Flight proven TM electronics packaged on reprogrammable MCM

    Stacked Interconnected MCM’s

    21

    P12


    Conformal lithium batteries l.jpg

    HSTSS developed battery technology is physically conformable and will support launch accelerations of 100,000 g’s. To accomplish this, HSTSS contracts with multiple battery vendors have modified COTS technologies for harsh environments.

    Rechargeable Lithium-Ion technology is: composed of solid electrolyte, environmentally friendly, customizable for various applications high in energy density (125 Wh/Kg), conformal foil laminate packaging, provides excellent cyclability.

    Li/MnO2 Pouch Technology provides high energy density (250 Wh/Kg), conformal foil laminate packaging, - 20 C to +70 C operation, rapid prototyping, is customizable for various applications, high rate capability, design flexibility.

    Conformal Lithium Batteries

    Encapsulated Artillery Nose Fuze Battery

    22

    P12


    Issues concerns l.jpg

    Issues & Concerns

    • Radiation requirements

      • Although HSTSS is acceleration hardened, single event upsets related to radiation is a Programmatic issue.

      • Potential part of the demonstration

  • Data recording

    • Method is TBD

  • Data format

    • HSTSS components output NRZ-L

    • Proposed Upgraded Auxiliary Instrumentation System will only accept Bi- L PCM data.

  • 23

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