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Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Micronutrients Fluid and Electrolytes Balance. Chapter 8, 9,10 BIOL1400 Dr. Mohamad H. Termos. Vitamins. Essential organic (carbon containing) substances Needed in small amounts For normal function, growth and maintenance

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Vitamins minerals and water micronutrients fluid and electrolytes balance

Vitamins, Minerals, and WaterMicronutrientsFluid and Electrolytes Balance.

Chapter 8, 9,10


Dr. Mohamad H. Termos



  • Essential organic (carbon containing) substances

  • Needed in small amounts

  • For normal function, growth and maintenance

  • They are not energy yielding molecules



Vitamins can be classified into;

1- Water soluble vitamins: such as vitamin C and the B vitamins.

2- Fat soluble vitamins: such as vitamins A, D, E and K.



Vitamins are needed in the food because many of them can't be synthesized in the human body.

Exceptions include:

- Vitamin A can be synthesized from plant pigments

- Vitamin D can be synthesized by skin in the presence of sunlight

- Vitamin K can be synthesized by gut bacteria to some extent

Vitamin toxicity

Vitamin Toxicity

  • Fat-soluble vitamins can accumulate in the body and have toxic effects

  • Toxicities of vitamin A are observed most frequently, with consumption as little as 3x human needs

  • Vitamin E, Niacin, vitamin B-6, and vitamin C can become toxic when 15-100 times the amount needed is consumed, usually from supplementation

The fat soluble vitamins a d e and k

The fat-soluble vitamins – A, D, E, and K

  • Absorption of fat soluble vitamins

    • Absorbed with dietary fat

    • Special carriers in the bloodstream

    • Storage in the liver and adipose tissue

    • 40% to 90% are absorbed when fat absorption is efficient

    • Diseases affecting fat absorption, some medications and laxatives can negatively affect fat soluble vitamin absorption

Vitamin a

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is found in foods in different forms

- Retinoids are preformed vitamin A only found in animal foods

- Plants contain pigments called carotenoids (provitamin A) which can be turned into vitamin A

Vitamin a functions

Vitamin A: Functions


- Night vision: retinal (form of vit. A) allows eyes to adjust from bright to dim light.

- Xeropthalmia: dry eye, cells of cornea lose ability to produce mucus which can eventually lead to blindness

- Deficiency is second leading cause of blindness worldwide

Vitamins minerals and water micronutrients fluid and electrolytes balance

Vision (cont.)

- Macular degeneration:

- Macula of eye contains carotenoids.

- High consumption of these carotenoids decreases risk of macular degeneration

- Carotenoids may also decrease risk of cataracts

Vitamin a functions cont

Vitamin A- functions (cont.)

- Health of other cells

- Growth, development, and reproduction

- Cardiovascular disease prevention

  • Carotenoids are antioxidants

  • 5 fruits and veggies a day can decrease risk

  • Cancer prevention

  • Vitamin A analogs used for acne treatment.

  • Vitamin a sources and needs

    Vitamin A sources and needs

    - Preformed: Liver, fish, fortified milk, yogurt and eggs

    - Provitamin A: Dark green and orange vegetables and fruits also tomatoes

    - Consuming high amounts of marine oils can lead to toxicity

    - RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance): 700 to 900 micrograms

    - Daily Value is 1000 micrograms

    Vitamin a sources and needs1

    Vitamin A sources and needs

    • Upper level of vitamin A (The highest tolerable level)

      • Upper level is 3000 micrograms of preformed vitamin A per day for adult.

      • Can lead to fetal malformations, spontaneous abortions, and liver toxicity

      • Carotenoids are not toxic

    Vitamin d

    Vitamin D

    - Also considered a hormone

    - Skin cells can synthesize Vit D using sunlight, 90% comes from sun

    - Experts recommend exposing hands, face and arms to the sun for 5-10 minutes, 3 - 5 times per week

    Vitamin d functions

    Vitamin D: Functions

    Regulates calcium and bone metabolism

    - Regulates calcium and phosphorus absorption

    - Regulates deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bone

    Vitamin d deficiency

    Vitamin-D Deficiency


    • Vit. D deficiency in children causes bowed legs


      - Bones become porous and weak and break easily

      - Aging decreases Vit D production in skin by about 70%

    Vitamin d1

    Vitamin D

    Dietary sources and needs

    - Mostly in fortified milk and yogurt, fatty fish and fortified cereals

    - Also found in eggs and butter.

    - AI (Adequate Intake): 5 micrograms per day, higher for older adults

    Vitamin d upper level

    Vitamin D: Upper Level

    - 50 micrograms per day

    - Causes over-absorption of calcium and calcium deposits in kidneys

    - Weakness, loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, and increased urine also symptoms

    - Not from excessive sun exposure

    Vitamin e

    Vitamin E

    - Antioxidant

    - Resides in cell membranes

    - Stops free-radicals from damaging components of the cell membranes and DNA

    - Aids in the formation of red blood

    - Helps maintain nervous tissue and immune function

    Vitamin e food sources and needs

    Vitamin E: Food sources and needs

    - Plant oils, cereals, eggs, and nuts

    - Animal fat has almost no Vit E

    - Adequate intake = 15 milligram per day

    Vitamin e1

    Vitamin E

    - Upper level is 1000 mg of supplemental alpha tocopherol (most common form of Vit. E)

    - Can antagonize vitamin K role in blood clotting leading to bleeding.

    Vitamin k

    Vitamin K

    Bacterial synthesis in intestines supplies about 10% of our needs


    - Blood clotting

    - Also helps in calcium binding to bones, muscles, and kidneys

    Vitamin k food sources and rda

    Vitamin K: Food sources and RDA

    - Liver, soybeans and canola oils

    - Broccoli, peas and green beans

    - DV is 80 micrograms

    Water soluble vitamins and choline

    Water-soluble vitamins and choline

    - Readily excreted from the body

    - Very little stored

    - Includes the B vitamins and C

    - Choline is a related nutrient but is not classified as a vitamin.

    Thiamin b1

    Thiamin - B1

    Functions to release energy from carbohydrates

    Deficiency may lead to enlarged heart and sometimes severe edema

    Thiamin b1 food sources and needs

    Thiamin - B1: Food sources and needs

    - Meats, milk, fish, and cereals.

    - Daily Value:1.5 milligrams.

    • Toxicity unlikely as it is readily excreted

    • No upper limit

    Riboflavin b2

    Riboflavin - B2


    - Antioxidant

    - Releases energy from carbohydrates

    Food sources and RDA

    • Milk, milk products, enriched grains, meat, various greens and eggs

    • DV is 1.7 milligrams.

    • No upper limit

    Niacin b3

    Niacin - B3

    - Functions in fat metabolism


    - Pellagra (means rough or painful skin)

    - Dermatitis and diarrhea

    • Death can occur

      Food sources and needs

      - Poultry, beef, tuna/fish, asparagus, peanuts

      - Also coffee and tea

    • DV is 20 mg and UL is 35 mg




    • Acts in fat and carbohydrate metabolism

    • Promotes synthesis of glucose, fatty acids, and DNA

    • Breaks down certain amino acids


    • Scaly inflammation of the skin

    • Changes in tongue and lips

    • Decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting

    • Anemia, depression, muscle pain and weakness

    • Poor growth



    Food sources and needs

    • Cauliflower, Egg yolks, Peanuts, Cheese

    • Intestinal bacteria synthesize some biotin making deficiency unlikely

    • Avidin in raw egg whites binds biotin and inhibits its absorption

    • DV is 300 micrograms

    • No UL

    Pyridoxine or vitamin b6

    Pyridoxine or Vitamin B6


    - Carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism

    - Synthesis of hemoglobin

    - Maintain healthy brain function.

    Deficiency symptoms

    - Depression, vomiting, skin disorders, nerve irritation, decreased immune response. Deficiency occur in alcoholism

    Food sources and needs

    - Meat, fish, and poultry

    - Cereals, potatoes, and milk

    • Bananas, broccoli, and spinach

    • Need: 2 mg, UL: 100mg/day




    - DNA synthesis

    - Amino acid metabolism


    - Affects red blood cell division because DNA cannot form,

    - Maternal deficiency in first 28 days of pregnancy linked to neural tube defects

    - All women of childbearing years should take 400mcg of synthetic folate per day



    Food sources and needs

    • Green leafy vegetables, organ meats

    • Vegetables, dried beans and orange juice

    • Cereals, milk and bread

    • Destroyed by heat and processing

    • DV: 400 micrograms

    • Pregnant women need 600 mcg

    • Upper Limit: 1 milligram

    Vitamin b12

    Vitamin B12


    - Synthesized by bacteria, fungus, and other lower organisms


    - Folate metabolism

    - Maintains brain and spinal cord

    - Forms red blood cells

    Food sources and needs

    - Animal foods - meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, milk, and milk products

    - RDA: 2.4 micrograms per day

    - Toxicity unknown, no UL

    Vitamin c

    Vitamin C


    - Found in all living tissues

    - Most animals can synthesize from glucose

    - Vitamin C deficiency leads to scurvy: weakness, poor wound healing, bone pain, fractures, bleeding gums, diarrhea, and bleeding.

    Absorption and metabolism

    - Absorbed in small intestines, 70-90% is absorbed

    - Percent absorbed decreases with increased dosage

    - High intakes can cause diarrhea

    Vitamin c1

    Vitamin C


    - Collagen synthesis

    • Highly concentrated in connective tissue, bones, teeth, tendons, and blood vessels

    • Wound healing

      - Antioxidant (water-soluble)

    • Reduce formation of cancer-causing molecules

      - Enhanced iron absorption

      - Immune system

    • Vitamin C in large quantities is not shown to prevent colds

    • May reduce symptoms

    Vitamin c2

    Vitamin C

    Food sources and needs

    • Almost exclusively in fruits and vegetables

    • Lost in processing and cooking

    • DV 60 milligrams

    • Smokers need an extra 35 milligrams per day

    • Risk of deficiency

      • Alcoholism

      • Elderly men

    • Upper Level: 2 grams per day

      • Inflammation of the stomach

      • Diarrhea



    - Now called an essential nutrient but not a vitamin

    - Functions

    • Precursor to acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter associated with attention, learning, and memory; muscle control; and other functions

      - Deficiency is linked to liver damage

      - Food sources and needs

    • Widely distributed in foods

    • Milk, liver, and peanuts

    • Adequate Intake: 425 to 550 milligrams per day

    • Upper Level: 3.5 grams per day

      • Fishy body odor

      • Low blood pressure

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