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Classification and Biodiversity . Lesson 2. Principals of Taxonomy continued. . Baleen Whales. Which species is the sperm whales most closely related to? What is the general term given to the species that preceded the Narwhal and the Porpoise?

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Classification and biodiversity

Classification and Biodiversity

Lesson 2. Principals of Taxonomy continued.


Baleen whales
Baleen Whales

  • Which species is the sperm whales most closely related to?

  • What is the general term given to the species that preceded the Narwhal and the Porpoise?

  • What kinds of evidence do you think scientists have based this phylogenetic tree on?


Evidence for phylogenetic trees
Evidence for Phylogenetic Trees

  • Structural similarities. E.g. toothed vs beaked vs baleen.

  • Similarities in DNA.

  • Similarities in proteins

  • Antibody-Antigen studies

How? = Today’s lesson


Similarities in proteins
Similarities in Proteins.

  • Look for similarities in 1o structure.

  • Tend to do this for a single protein across the species e.g. haemoglobin.

  • Not the most conclusive form of evidence...why?

    • Only looking at one protein-there are 10’s of thousands in the body.

    • Just because the protein is different does not mean it is a different species. E.g. eye colour protein-Is someone with blue eyes a different species to someone with brown eyes?


Similarities in dna
Similarities in DNA.

  • You could just look at the sequence-are the bases sequences the same. Again this tends to happen with only one section of the genome.

    Or

  • DNA hybridisation


Dna hybridisation
DNA Hybridisation

Quantitative measure-What temperature is needed to break these bonds again? The fewer mispairings, the more H-bonds, the higher the temperature needed.


Similarities between DNA sequences between 4 species.

Use this data to construct a phylogenetic tree for these 4 species. You can assume that they all came from a single common ancestor.

Differences in the primary structure of haemoglobin between 4 species of animals.


Other methods
Other methods???.

  • Both protein analysis and DNA hybridisation have their pitfalls.

  • Using Immunology.

    Example-Are Rabbits more closely related to chimpanzees or Elephants?

    Scientists can use a protein called albumin to tell.

    How? Answers on a whiteboard.


Immunology and classification
Immunology and Classification

Rabbit injected with pure human albumin.

Rabbit produces antibodies against human albumin

Human albumin

Anti-human antibodies collected and purified.

Elephant albumin

Produces very dense prcipitate

Produces less dense precipitate


Back to the 3 animal species
Back to the 3 animal species…

Is this data consistent with the phylogenetic tree you drew up earlier?


To finish
To finish…

  • June 09 Question 6

  • Jan 10 Question 2


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