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Classification and Biodiversity . Lesson 2. Principals of Taxonomy continued. . Baleen Whales. Which species is the sperm whales most closely related to? What is the general term given to the species that preceded the Narwhal and the Porpoise?

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classification and biodiversity

Classification and Biodiversity

Lesson 2. Principals of Taxonomy continued.

baleen whales
Baleen Whales
  • Which species is the sperm whales most closely related to?
  • What is the general term given to the species that preceded the Narwhal and the Porpoise?
  • What kinds of evidence do you think scientists have based this phylogenetic tree on?
evidence for phylogenetic trees
Evidence for Phylogenetic Trees
  • Structural similarities. E.g. toothed vs beaked vs baleen.
  • Similarities in DNA.
  • Similarities in proteins
  • Antibody-Antigen studies

How? = Today’s lesson

similarities in proteins
Similarities in Proteins.
  • Look for similarities in 1o structure.
  • Tend to do this for a single protein across the species e.g. haemoglobin.
  • Not the most conclusive form of evidence...why?
    • Only looking at one protein-there are 10’s of thousands in the body.
    • Just because the protein is different does not mean it is a different species. E.g. eye colour protein-Is someone with blue eyes a different species to someone with brown eyes?
similarities in dna
Similarities in DNA.
  • You could just look at the sequence-are the bases sequences the same. Again this tends to happen with only one section of the genome.

Or

  • DNA hybridisation
dna hybridisation
DNA Hybridisation

Quantitative measure-What temperature is needed to break these bonds again? The fewer mispairings, the more H-bonds, the higher the temperature needed.

slide7

Similarities between DNA sequences between 4 species.

Use this data to construct a phylogenetic tree for these 4 species. You can assume that they all came from a single common ancestor.

Differences in the primary structure of haemoglobin between 4 species of animals.

other methods
Other methods???.
  • Both protein analysis and DNA hybridisation have their pitfalls.
  • Using Immunology.

Example-Are Rabbits more closely related to chimpanzees or Elephants?

Scientists can use a protein called albumin to tell.

How? Answers on a whiteboard.

immunology and classification
Immunology and Classification

Rabbit injected with pure human albumin.

Rabbit produces antibodies against human albumin

Human albumin

Anti-human antibodies collected and purified.

Elephant albumin

Produces very dense prcipitate

Produces less dense precipitate

back to the 3 animal species
Back to the 3 animal species…

Is this data consistent with the phylogenetic tree you drew up earlier?

to finish
To finish…
  • June 09 Question 6
  • Jan 10 Question 2
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