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Chapter IX:. Emerging Europe and the Byzantine Empire. European Transition. Germanic peoples began moving into Roman territory by 200AD The Franks was the only long lasting Germanic kingdom.

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chapter ix

Chapter IX:

Emerging Europe and the Byzantine Empire


european transition
European Transition
  • Germanic peoples began moving into Roman territory by 200AD
  • The Franks was the only long lasting Germanic kingdom.
  • Clovis (who converted to Christianity around 500 AD) created the Frankish kingdom
  • Germans and Romans intermarried and created a new society
  • Ordeal= physical trial used by Germanic peoples to determine guilt or innocence
  • Wergild: amount of money paid by a criminal to the family of the person he had killed or injured
  • The Germanic tribes used trial by ordeal. This meant a physical trial such a holding a red hot piece of iron. If unharmed=innocent
  • Established the missi dominici (two mwn who were sent out to local districts to ensure that the counts were carrying out the king’s orders
  • Magyars= people of western Asia who settled on the plains of Hungary
  • Vikings were made part of European civilization by the Frankish policy of settling them and converting them to Christianity
  • The Vikings loved adventure, spoils of war and trade…As a result, they attacked many areas of Europe…They were excellent shipbuilders, warriors and sailors
middle ages daily life
Middle Ages: Daily Life
  • Chivalry= a code of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold/ oath to defend the Catholic Church, defenseless people, treat captives as honored guests/ implied that knights should only fight for glory and not for material rewards
  • Knights showed their fighting skills in contests called: tournaments
  • The clergy, the nobility and the peasants and townspeople made up the three estates
  • Count= a German noble who acted as the king’s representative in a certain local area
  • Aristocratic women in feudal Europe:
  • Legally hold property
  • Most women were under the control of their fathers until they were married
  • Many opportunities to play important roles
  • Overseeing money matters and food supply (controller of servants)
  • Vassalage=the heart of feudalism
  • Feudal contract= a set of unwritten rules that determined the relationship between a lord and a vassal: The major obligation of a vassal to his lord was to perform military service. usually about 40 days a year. Also, when summoned, a vassal had to appear at his lord’s court to give the lord advice. Vassals were also responsible for making financial payments to the lord as well
  • When a lord was away at court or war, management of his estate fell to the lady of the castle
  • Fief= the grant of land made to a vassal
christianity in medieval europe
Christianity in Medieval Europe
  • Christianity had become the supreme religion of the Roman Empire by 500
  • The church developed a system of organization
  • Saint Benedict:
  • Founded a community of monks that established the basic form of monasticism in the Catholic Church
  • Monk= a man who separates himself from ordinary society in order to pursue a life of dedication to God.
  • Missionaries= people sent out to carry a religious message
  • Monks copied the scriptures and Latin in rooms called: scriptoria
  • The separation between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the catholic Church of the West was called: The Great Schism
  • 2: Gregory I strengthened the power of the papacy
the magna carta
The Magna Carta
  • 1215, Runnymede, England
  • Resenting the monarchy’s expanding power; many nobles rebelled against King John.
  • “Great Charter”
  • Recognized the longstanding feudal idea of mutual rights and obligations between the lord and vassal.
  • Eventually was used to strengthen the idea that a monarch’s power was limited, not absolute
  • Under Edward I, the English Parliament emerged
the byzantine empire
The Byzantine Empire
  • 400’s, as Germanic tribes moved into the western part of the Roman empire, the Eastern Roman empire continued to exist
  • Justinian became emperor of the ERE in 527…codification of Roman law
  • Over time, the ERE shrank because it became too big to control, so it became the Byzantine Empire (patriarch/ Eastern Orthodox instead of pope/ Roman Catholic)
  • Great Schism (still hasn’t healed)
the crusades
The Crusades
  • 1000’s to 1200’s, European Christians went on a series of military campaigns to regain the Holy Land from the Seljuk Turks (Muslims…called infidels by the Crusaders)
  • The push for the crusades came when Alexius I asked for aid/ Pope Urban II agrees to help
  • The European Christians called the Muslims of the Holy Land: infidels