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Chapter 6. What is Culture?. Culture is the distinctive life-way of a people united by a common language and governed by rules and models for their beliefs and behavior. In layman’s terms, culture is what we live everyday and what we bring with us to the workplace.

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What is culture
What is Culture?

  • Culture is the distinctive life-way of a people united by a common language and governed by rules and models for their beliefs and behavior.

  • In layman’s terms, culture is what we live everyday and what we bring with us to the workplace.

Culture is the root, the stem and the branch, while civilization is the branch, the leaf and the blossom.

-Nelson Brooks


Culture specific approach culture general approach

CULTURE-SPECIFIC APPROACH

CULTURE-GENERAL APPROACH

CULTURAL PHILOSOPHY


The culture-specific approach gives definite information about individual cultures.

Culture-general believes that one should first have an understanding and awareness of cultural issues before specific information is given. This is to reduce the chance of stereotyping.

This course will be based upon the culture-general approach.



How to play
How to play:

  • A definition will be presented and you must determine the appropriate word from the list.


Prejudice

Ethnocentrism

Stereotype

Sexism

Multiculturalism

Cultural Sensitivity

Ethnicity

Racism

Race

Internalized Oppression

Discrimination

Heterosexism

Culture

The ability to be open to learning about and accepting of different cultural groups.

Cultural Sensitivity


Prejudice

Ethnocentrism

Stereotype

Sexism

Multiculturalism

Cultural Sensitivity

Ethnicity

Racism

Race

Internalized Oppression

Discrimination

Heterosexism

Culture

A belief that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.

Racism


Prejudice

Ethnocentrism

Stereotype

Sexism

Multiculturalism

Cultural Sensitivity

Ethnicity

Racism

Race

Internalized Oppression

Discrimination

Heterosexism

Culture

A generalization of characteristics that is applied to all members of a cultural group.

Stereotype


Prejudice

Ethnocentrism

Stereotype

Sexism

Multiculturalism

Cultural Sensitivity

Ethnicity

Racism

Race

Internalized Oppression

Discrimination

Heterosexism

Culture

A subconscious belief in negative stereotypes about one’s group that results in an attempt to fulfill those stereotypes and a projection of those stereotypes onto other members of that group.

Internalized oppression


Prejudice

Ethnocentrism

Stereotype

Sexism

Multiculturalism

Cultural Sensitivity

Ethnicity

Racism

Race

Internalized Oppression

Discrimination

Heterosexism

Culture

A belief in the inherent superiority of one pattern of loving over all and thereby the right to dominance.

Heterosexism


Prejudice

Ethnocentrism

Stereotype

Sexism

Multiculturalism

Cultural Sensitivity

Ethnicity

Racism

Race

Internalized Oppression

Discrimination

Heterosexism

Culture

To make a difference in treatment on a basis other than individual character.

Discrimination


The recognition and acknowledgement that society is pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.

Prejudice

Ethnocentrism

Stereotype

Sexism

Multiculturalism

Cultural Sensitivity

Ethnicity

Racism

Race

Internalized Oppression

Discrimination

Heterosexism

Culture

Multiculturalism


Prejudice pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.

Ethnocentrism

Stereotype

Sexism

Multiculturalism

Cultural Sensitivity

Ethnicity

Racism

Race

Internalized Oppression

Discrimination

Heterosexism

Culture

An attitude, opinion, or feeling formed without adequate prior knowledge, thought, or reason.

Prejudice


Prejudice pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.

Ethnocentrism

Stereotype

Sexism

Multiculturalism

Cultural Sensitivity

Ethnicity

Racism

Race

Internalized Oppression

Discrimination

Heterosexism

Culture

The belief in the inherent superiority of one sex (gender) over the other and thereby the right to dominance.

Sexism


Prejudice pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.

Ethnocentrism

Stereotype

Sexism

Multiculturalism

Cultural Sensitivity

Ethnicity

Racism

Race

Internalized Oppression

Discrimination

Heterosexism

Culture

A body of learned beliefs, traditions, principles, and guides for behavior that are shared among members of a particular group.

Culture


Prejudice pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.

Ethnocentrism

Stereotype

Sexism

Multiculturalism

Cultural Sensitivity

Ethnicity

Racism

Race

Internalized Oppression

Discrimination

Heterosexism

Culture

To judge other cultures by the standards of one’s own, and beyond that, to see one’s own standards as the true universal and the other culture in a negative way.

Ethnocentrism


Prejudice pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.

Ethnocentrism

Stereotype

Sexism

Multiculturalism

Cultural Sensitivity

Ethnicity

Racism

Race

Internalized Oppression

Discrimination

Heterosexism

Culture

As a biological concept, it defines groups of people based on a set of genetically transmitted characteristics.

race


Prejudice pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.

Ethnocentrism

Stereotype

Sexism

Multiculturalism

Cultural Sensitivity

Ethnicity

Racism

Race

Internalized Oppression

Discrimination

Heterosexism

Culture

Sharing a strong sense of identity with a particular religious, racial, or national group.

Ethnicity


Primary secondary dimensions of diversity
Primary & Secondary Dimensions of Diversity pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.

  • Primary dimensions are aspects of ourselves that we cannot change. They are things people know about us before we even open our mouths, because they are physically visible (except sexual orientation). When people feel they are being stereotyped based on primary dimension, they can be very sensitive about it.

  • Secondary dimensions are elements we have some power to change. People are less sensitive about secondary dimensions. We also have the choice of whether to disclose this information or not; we can conceal these characteristics.


Primary & Secondary Dimensions of Diversity pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.

Work Background

Geographic Location

Income

Sexual Orientation

Race

Ethnicity

Parental Status

Marital Status

Gender

Age

Physical Qualities

Military Experience

Education

Religious Beliefs

Loden and Rosener


Paradigms
PARADIGMS pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.

Paradigms establish the rules and boundaries for the way we see things.


Communicating across cultural lines

Communicating Across Cultural Lines pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.

Communication is one of the most basic means of getting your idea across, but when it comes down to communicating with someone outside your comfort zone things can become a little unnerving. We have some suggestions that may alleviate those apprehensions.


Ways to facilitate communication across cultural boundaries
Ways to Facilitate Communication Across Cultural Boundaries pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.

  • Recognize differences

  • Build Your Self-Awareness

  • Describe and Identify, then Interpret

  • Don’t assume your interpretation is correct

  • Verbalize your own non-verbal signs

  • Share your experience honestly

  • Acknowledge any discomfort, hesitation, or concern

  • Practice politically correct communication

  • Give your time and attention when communicating

  • Don’t evaluate or judge


Cultural Sensitivity pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.

Leads to…

Cultural Competency


Individual s path to cultural competency

Individual’s Path to Cultural Competency pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.

Learning is like a journey, in that, it is a path that we follow to enlightenment. A model developed by David Hoopes, gives us a model to cultural competency. His outline illustrates the development of cultural competency in every one of us. Competency implies having the capacity to function effectively. It will be interesting to see where, we as individual, fit into this continuum.


PATH OF INTERCULTURAL LEARNING pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.

Multiculturation

Selective Adoption

Appreciation/Valuing

Acceptance/Respect

Understanding

Awareness

Ethnocentricity

Hoopes


Individual’s Path to Cultural Competency pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.

Ethnocentricity – This is a state of relying on our own, and only our own, paradigms based on our cultural heritage. We view the world through narrow filters, and we will only accept information that fits our paradigms. We resist and/or discard others.

Awareness – This is the point at which we begin to realize that there are things that exist which fall outside the realm of our cultural paradigms.

Understanding- This is the point at which we are not only aware that there are things that fall outside our cultural paradigms, but we see the reason for their existence.


Individual’s Path to Cultural Competency pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.

Acceptance/Respect - This is when we begin allowing those from other cultures to just be who they are, and that it is OKAY for things to not always fit into our paradigms.

Appreciation/Value- This is the point where we begin seeing the worth in the things that fall outside our own cultural paradigms.

Selective Adoption - This is the point at which, we begin using things that were initially outside our own cultural paradigms.

Multiculturation- This is when we have begun integrating our lives with our experiences from a variety of cultural experiences.


Continuum of cultural competency in the workplace

Continuum of Cultural Competency in the Workplace pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.

Even though, we may be culturally sensitive, our work environment may not be at the same level. This can be attributed to the numerous people employed and the different ideologies they possess. As you review this continuum, one can see how these steps parallel those in the Individuals’ path to Cultural Competency.


Continuum of cultural competency
Continuum of Cultural pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.Competency

Cultural Proficiency

Cultural Competence

Cultural Pre-Competence

Cultural Blindness

Cultural Incapacity

Cultural

Destructiveness

SAMHSA


Continuum of Cultural pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.Competency

Cultural Destructiveness is the most negative. It is the attitudes, policies, and practices that are destructive to cultures and the individuals within these cultures. A system that adheres to a destructive extreme assumes that one race or culture is superior and eradicates lesser cultures because of their perceived sub-human condition. Bigotry coupled with vast power allows the dominant group to disenfranchise, control, exploit, or systemically destroys the less powerful population.

Cultural Incapacity occurs when agencies do not intentionally seek to be culturally destructive, but rather have no capacity to help people from other cultures. This system remains extremely biased, and believes in the superiority of the dominant group. It assumes a paternal posture towards “lesser” groups.


Continuum of Cultural pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.Competency

Cultural Blindness is characterized by a well intended philosophy; however, the consequence of such a belief can often camouflage the reality of ethnocentrism. This system suffers from a deficit of information and often lack the avenues through which they can obtain needed information.

While these agencies often view themselves as unbiased and responsive to the needs of minority people, their ability to effectively work with a diverse population maybe severely limited.

Cultural Pre-competence implies movement towards reaching out to other cultures. The pre-competent agency realizes its weaknesses in working with people of other cultures and attempts to improve that relationship with a specific population.


Continuum of Cultural pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.Competency

Cultural Competence is characterized by acceptance of and respect for differences, continuing self assessment regarding culture, careful attention to the dynamics of differences, and continuous expansion of cultural knowledge and resources.

Cultural Proficiency is the culmination point on the continuum is characterized by holding culture in high esteem. These agencies actively seek to hire a diverse workforce.


References pluralistic. In addition to the dominant cultural, there exists many other cultures based around ethnicity, sexual orientation, geography, religion, gender, and class.

  • SAMHSA, Office of Minority Health, and Health Resources and Administration, Quality Health Services for Hispanics: The Cultural Competency Component, 2001.

  • Nelson Brook, “Parameters of Culture”,FL News Exchange (February 1973). A publication of the Connecticut State Department of Education.

  • Loden and Rosener, Workforce America!, 1991.

Should you have any questions regarding any information on this presentation, please contact Julie Henry at 1-800-832-9623, ext.6628.


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