Introduction to ipm insect pests
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INTRODUCTION TO IPM & INSECT PESTS. Pam Compton IPM Tech CES/UAF. IPM – Integrated Pest Management. The use of all available tactics or strategies to attain an economically acceptable yield or plant quality while causing the least disruption to people, pets and the environment.

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Introduction to ipm insect pests

INTRODUCTION TO IPM&INSECT PESTS

Pam Compton

IPM Tech

CES/UAF


Ipm integrated pest management

IPM – Integrated Pest Management

The use of all available tactics or strategies to

attain an economically acceptable yield or plant

quality while causing the least disruption to people, pets and the environment.


The 6 steps of ipm

The 6 Steps of IPM

1. Inspect and Investigate

2. Identify and Learn

3. Monitor

4. Choose Control Methods

5. Evaluate

6. Educate


1 inspect investigate

1. Inspect & Investigate

  • Locations discovered

  • Conditions

  • Number observed

  • When noticed


2 identify learn

2. Identify & Learn

  • Id the pest

    life cycle

    pest/beneficial

    what does it eat

    where does it live

  • Is it native to Alaska, to South Central?


3 monitor

3. Monitor

  • Trap

  • Check back with client

  • Learn which control method works best


4 choose control methods

Habitat Modification

clean

fix leaks

seal holes

remove food & shelter

Biological Controls

encourage beneficals

Physical Methods

trapping

remove by hand

fly swatter

pest proof barriers

vacuuming

strong spray of water

Pesticides

least poisonous

pest specific

4. Choose Control Methods


5 evaluate

5. Evaluate

  • Check if the pests are still there.

  • Which control method is working the best.

  • Use a different control if necessary.

    6. Educate

  • Teach others what you have learned.


Insect pests

INSECT PESTS

Of The Garden


Dave guinn

Dave Guinn

APHIDS

  • Green Peach Aphid, more than 800 plant species host this insect

  • Appear to over winter in the egg stage, aphids can produce live young continuously over the summer without mating


P f compton uaf ces

P F Compton, UAF/CES

  • Winged mated adults produce the over wintering eggs in the fall

  • Eggs are often laid in a protected site; near a leaf bud or on the bark of trees


Stinkbug

Nymphs go through 5 instars before becoming adults

Feed on over 52 different plants, including native and ornamentals

Overwinter as adults

STINKBUG


Www hortnet co nz p f compton uaf ces

www.hortnet.co.nzP F Compton, UAF/CES

DAMAGE

  • Leaf distortion caused by feeding; feeding can also distort flowers and fruit

  • Loss of plant vigor

  • Aphids also secrete honeydew on which sooty black mold can grow

  • Spread of disease


Control options

Control Options

  • Use a high PF Compton UAF/CES

    pressure spray of water

  • Rub insects off

  • Encourage predators

  • Reflective mulches

  • Insecticidal soap spray

  • Horticultural oils

  • Other registered pesticides

    Ipm ncsu edu


Pam compton ces uaf

Pam Compton CES/UAF

CUTWORMS

  • Different species of soil-dwelling caterpillars (Noctuidae)

  • Curl into a ‘C’ when disturbed

  • Usually feed at night, clip plant off at soil level

  • Some climb mature plants to feed on leaves


Damage

Damage

  • Many over winter as eggs that hatch in early spring

  • Feed on crops or weeds

  • Move into the soil to pupate by mid summer

  • Adults emerge in July or August


Control options1

Control Options

  • Keep the areas surrounding the garden free of sod and weeds

  • Cultivate the soil in the fall

  • Use collars, barriers or screens to keep cutworms from reaching plants

  • Sticky bands can trap climbing cutworms

  • Insecticides including Bt can be used before serious damage occurs


Pam compton ces uaf1

Pam Compton CES/UAF

MITES

Tiny, eight-legged, round-bodied animals that resemble spiders

Both young and adult pierce the plant then feed on the plant juices


Pam compton ces uaf2

Pam Compton CES/UAF

DAMAGE

  • Feeding result in a mottled pattern and leaf distortion

  • Can result in reduced flower and fruit production

  • Some mites produce webbing or galls


Clover mites

Clover Mites


P f compton uaf ces1

P F Compton, UAF/CES


Control options2

CONTROL OPTIONS

  • If possible use a forceful spray of water to dislodge

  • Insecticidal soap if labeled for mites

  • Predator introduction

  • IGR’s (Insect Growth Regulator)

  • Miticides


Insect images jack t reed

Insect Images Jack T Reed

THRIPS

  • Small, fast moving, dark-brown insects with feathery wings

  • Deposit eggs in slits made in the leaf

  • Generally over winter as adults


Insect images ronald smith whitney cranshaw

Insect Images-Ronald Smith-Whitney Cranshaw

DAMAGE

  • Leaves where feeding has occurred may become silvery-grey with brownish feces left by feeding thrips

  • Leaves may become distorted; flowers mottled


Control options3

CONTROL OPTIONS

  • Insecticidal soap, check label for precautions when using on delicate blooms

  • Botanical and synthetic insecticides are also available


Whitney cranshaw colorado state university bugwood org

Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

  • The rose tortrix moth is established in Anchorage and has now been introduced to the Mat-Su

  • European leaf-roller

  • Attacks the rose family; wild & cultivated roses, raspberry, cotoneaster, apple and mt ash.


P f compton uaf ces2

P F Compton, UAF/CES


Damage1

DAMAGE

  • Stop local growth by chewing terminal buds below calyx

  • Damage to blossoms can cause premature drop or malformed fruit

  • Webbing can interfere with photosynthesis


Larch sawfly

Larch Sawfly


Imported currant worm

Imported Currant Worm


Diamond backed moth

Diamond Backed Moth


Raspberry cane maggot

Raspberry Cane Maggot


Greenhouse and houseplant pests

Greenhouse and Houseplant Pests


Insect images whitney cranshaw

Insect Images-Whitney Cranshaw

FUNGUS GNATS

  • Adults live ~1 week and tend to be a pest due to their flying behavior and numbers

  • Eggs are laid in the soil soon after mating

  • Larvae feed on organic material including plant roots


Insect images gerald j lenhard

Insect Images-Gerald J Lenhard

  • DAMAGE

  • Plant injury occurs when the larvae feeds on tiny plant roots

  • Seedlings are more at risk to feeding damage


Control options4

CONTROL OPTIONS

  • Vacuum pests off plants

  • Sticky traps

  • Introduce beneficial insects

  • Insecticidal soap, botanical insecticide, or other; listing host plant, pest and the site on the label

  • Eliminate any easy way in

  • Alter habitat, reduce moisture


Insect images whitney cranshaw1

Insect Images-Whitney Cranshaw

LEAFMINERS

  • Foliage of many plants may be attacked; vegetables, houseplants, and trees

  • Leafminers may be flies, sawflies, or moths

  • Eggs are laid on the surface or inserted into plant tissue


Top pam compton ces uaf bottom insect images john a weidhass

(top)Pam Compton, CES/UAF (bottom)Insect Images-John A Weidhass

DAMAGE

  • Larvae live and feed between leaf surfaces

  • Photosynthetic activity is reduced and plant is weakened


Control options5

CONTROL OPTIONS

  • Screen or cover susceptible plants when adults are present

  • Removal of infested plant leaves will reduce future pest populations

  • Systemic insecticides; plant, pest, and site listed on label

  • IGR’s (Insect Growth Regulators) pest specific

  • Secure points of access for pests


Insect images whitney cranshaw usda ars photo unit

Insect Images-Whitney Cranshaw//USDA ARS photo unit

MEALYBUGS

  • The nymph move freely about the plant until they find a spot to settle

  • Once they settle production of the waxy covering begins or else will develop into short lived winged males

  • Females will lay hundreds of eggs beneath the waxy covering


Insect images william m ciesla

Insect Images-William M Ciesla

DAMAGE

  • Cousin to the aphid, mealybugs pierce the plant and feed on the sap

  • The plants vigor and growth is reduced as they feed

  • Plants then become more susceptible to other insects and disease


Control options6

CONTROL OPTIONS

  • Hand pick

  • Shower with high pressure spray (careful with fragile foliage)

  • Stationary insects can be swabbed off with alcohol

  • Introduce beneficial insects

  • Sticky traps

  • Systemic insecticides, labeled for plant, pest, and site


Stevehopkin co uk

Stevehopkin.co.uk

SPRINGTAILS

  • Primarily are decomposers

  • Can be found in rich organic soil

  • They have a short life cycle


Www emporia edu biosci

www.emporia.edu/biosci

DAMAGE

  • Rarely are plants damaged by springtails

  • Large populations may damage root hairs of most greenhouse plantings


Control options7

CONTROL OPTIONS

  • Change the organic content of your potting soil

  • Eliminate high moisture areas

  • Introduce beneficial insects

  • Insecticides which list pest, plant, and site


Top insect images david riley down central science lab harpenden archives

(top)Insect Images-David Riley—(down) Central Science Lab. Harpenden Archives

WHITEFLIES

  • Females lay circular groups of eggs on the undersides of leaves

  • Nymphs resemble the young of mealybugs or scale

  • The adults emerge after pupation

  • Broadly oblong wings are covered with a white waxy powder


Insect images david riley

Insect Images-David Riley

DAMAGE

  • Most greenhouse and houseplants are hosts

  • Adults can usually be seen resting on the foliage

  • Nymphs decrease the vigor of the plant by sucking the sap


Control options8

CONTROL OPTIONS

  • Hand pick or vacuum visible pests

  • Sticky traps

  • Spot kill with an alcohol swab

  • Introduce and encourage beneficial insects

  • Alter plant habitat

  • Insecticidal soap, botanical insecticide listing host plant, pest, and site

  • IGR’s


In and around your home

In and Around Your Home


Introduction to ipm insect pests

(top) Edward H Holsten, USDA Forest Service, www.insectimages.org (bottom) Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado StateUniversity,www.insectimages.org

CARPENTER ANTS

  • Among the most efficient wood-destroyers in Alaska

  • Construct nests in wood

  • Winged ants develop in mature nests of >2,000

  • Important decomposers of decaying trees


Introduction to ipm insect pests

(top) USDA Forest Service-NW Area Archives, www.insectimages.org(bottom) R. Werner, USDAForest Service, www.insectimages.org

  • DAMAGE

  • Often enter standing trees through a wound

  • Nesting sites; between insulation & subfloor, ceilings, wall voids, supports in crawl places, & heartwood of live trees

  • Only need 12% moisture to colonize


Edward h holsten usda forest service www insectimages org

Edward H Holsten, USDA Forest Service. www.insectimages.org

Control options

  • Determine location of nest and look for signs of wood damage

  • Prune or remove foliage near home

  • Avoid storing wet or rotting wood, or firewood, along side structures

  • Remove the nest

  • Use diatomaceous earth or silica aerogel on the exposed nest

  • Boric acid can be used according to label directions


Pam compton ces uaf3

Pam Compton CES/UAF

STORED FOOD PESTS

Life history varies among species, though many can have several generations a year depending on temperature and food availability

Adult and larval stage of stored food beetles infest foods; consuming and often breeding in the material.


Pam compton uaf ces laura jesse iowa state university

Pam Compton UAF/CES Laura Jesse, Iowa State University

DAMAGE

A wide range of stored foods can be contaminated:

-grains

-flours

-nuts

-beans

-pasta

-dried fruit

-spices

Plus the areas where foods are stored


Control options9

CONTROL OPTIONS

  • Examine foods for pests before storing

  • Use airtight containers to keep pests out of foods, or store susceptible foods in the refrigerator or freezer

  • Kill pests in foods by freezing or heating

  • Keep food service and storage areas clean and free of spilled food; use vaccum or stiff brush and sponge

  • Monitor for pests with traps


Resources

RESOURCES

  • Identifying & Controlling Pests in Alaska, CES, College of Rural Alaska, University of Alaska Fairbanks


Introduction to ipm insect pests

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