WILDLIFE MONITORING. Greg Stuart-Hill World Wildlife Fund. This focuses on wildlife (fauna) monitoring. Other natural resource monitoring systems (e.g. veld, fish, forestry) are also important. Are objectives being achieved?. Set objectives (land-use planning).
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World Wildlife Fund
This focuses on wildlife (fauna) monitoring. Other natural resource monitoring systems (e.g. veld, fish, forestry) are also important
Manage according to objectives
Monitor to see if objectives being achieved
Modify objectives or management
Monitoring is needed for adaptive management
MANAGEMENT & USE
--------- WILDLIFE ------------ (All species)
Here’s a problem!
Need: to know what is happening to the wildlife populations.
Why? Is wildlife management sustainable
How?Fixed Foot Patrols, fixed road counts, Cybertracker Counts and Aerial census.
Can use an index! ….... But sampling effort must be controlled ! …..
Output: …provide a graph for each species!
Counts do not have to be ‘accurate’ – a change in an index over time is fine!
Be careful of using the last point on the graph – this could be an error - so check the sex-ageinformation
Lets build a lodge here because this is where most of the game is
Why not put a borehole here to utilize this area
Need a Map showing where each species is concentrated
Why? To identify wildlife concentration areas for land-use planning purposes (also to see monitor distribution changes over the years)
How? Use Cyber tracker or Grid blocks for all sightings (NB also record where animals were not seen)
Land use planning
Need to determine ratios between adults, sub-adults an juveniles
Why? Use this information as an early warning of the current ‘health’ of the wildlife population
If sudden Increase
What is going on here? What is causing these abnormally high mortalities?
Output 2:Map showing where mortalities are
Map: Showing mortalities
Need: To keep track of mortalities
Why? To alert management if mortalities suddenly rise & plan action based on the cause (e.g. poaching, disease, drought)
Output 1:a Trend graph of mortalities over years
Also need to know the cause of mortalities
(i.e. is it due to poaching, disease, drought?)
But only if they these are abnormally high
Poaching is getting bad!
Map: Showing where poaching is occurring
A Table breaking down incidents for each year
1 elephant, 1 rhino
Need: To track poaching as a threat to wildlife
Why? To understand the threat to wildlife and gauge community support for the Conservancy
Need: To track problem animal incidents, identify those species causing problems, evaluate damage caused & record efforts that go into reducing conflict with problem animals
Why? To understand the impact of wildlife on people & find ways to reduce conflict and compensate individuals.
How? Keep record of all PAC incidents. Track attempts to reduce conflict (e.g. fencing, water protection, kraaling).
Its been a good season!
Map: Showing where rainfall occurred
Need: To track rainfall as a threat & opportunity for wildlife
Why? To separate the effects of rainfall from the impacts of human activity on wildlife and help explain population trend
Disturbance is affecting the elephants
Need: To track other land-use activities such as cropping, livestock farming, tourist activity
Why? To understand the threat of these disturbances and gauge if these have impacted on wildlife
Need: To keep a record of how many animals are Introduced or Removed
Why? To know if continued Introductions/Removals are wise, & explain any changes in the population trend-graphs
How? Keep a record of all animals that are Introduced and all animals that are Removed from the area.
** Need to also check on success of each introduction
If Survival Rates are less than 90% for a species then a mortality report should be attached to the table
If Breeding Rates are less than a critical level (level varies per species) then this indicates that a species will not thrive even though it survived survived the introduction event
Lower the elephant quota! - we have taken too many. Hunters can only find small tuskers
Need: to track change in Trophy Quality (e.g. tusk/horn size)
Why? Trophy hunting will not affect wildlife population growth (excluding predators), but too much hunting results in poor trophy size - this leads to a lower concession value.
How? From trophy hunter records
…provide a trophy size trend graph for each species, over years!
Comments of sighting satisfaction per species
We should re-introduce lions - they are key to tourism and are not being seen anymore
If we reduce elephant numbers it will save us a lot of damage and have no effect on game viewing
… provide a ‘game viewing success’ graph for each species, over years!
Comments, including repairs if any
Need: to closely monitor and repair any water installation, particularly in the dry season.
Why? Water is critical to wildlife, people and livestock. There is considerable conflict around this resource and so it is essential to ensure that water installations function.
How? Each water point should be visited on a regular basis and if necessary repairs made immediately.
Rhino inter-calving period is suddenly increasing. There seems to be a problem ?
Months between calves
Need: To to track population performance of species such as predators, elephant, rhino, disease free buffalo, etc
Why? To know how many there are and how their populations are performing.
How? Normal count methods do not work for rare or nocturnal species. Use specially designed systems (e.g. radio tracking, known group). This usually involves specialist research teams from MET, SRT, etc.
Lets provide extra feed for the buffalo!
I foresee problems this winter
Need: To track body condition of critical species such as Rhino, disease free Buffalo, Roan, etc
Why? To serve as an early warning of a nutritional (drought) problem.
How? Estimate body fat on a sample of animals each month and graph.