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The Modelling Journey. Part 1: Introduction to Systems Modelling. Introductions. Dr. David Millard Senior Lecturer of Computer Science University of Southampton [email protected] Dr. Yvonne Howard Senior Research Fellow University of Southampton [email protected]

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The modelling journey

The Modelling Journey

Part 1: Introduction to Systems Modelling


Introductions
Introductions

Dr. David Millard

Senior Lecturer of Computer Science University of Southampton [email protected]

Dr. Yvonne Howard

Senior Research Fellow

University of Southampton [email protected]

Part of the JISC Community Support Team


Objectives
Objectives

“Model (noun): A simplified or idealized description or conception of a particular system, situation, or process, often in mathematical terms, that is put forward as a basis for theoretical or empirical understanding, or for calculations, predictions, etc.; a conceptual or mental representation of something.”

Oxford English Dictionary

  • To widen the perception of what modelling is

  • To demonstrate modelling techniques with a common example

  • To illustrate the affordances of those modelling approaches, and how they connect together


Why a journey
Why a Journey?

Modelling is a spectrum of activity

  • The soft

    • Portfolios of evidence

    • Scenarios and Personas

    • Systems Theory (SSM etc.)

  • The hard

    • Universal Modelling Language

    • Business Process Modelling

    • EA Modelling


Why a journey1
Why a Journey?

Modelling is a spectrum of activity

  • The soft

    • Portfolios of evidence

    • Scenarios and Personas

    • Systems Theory (SSM etc.)

  • The hard

    • Universal Modelling Language

    • Business Process Modelling

    • EA Modelling

Communication

Decision Support

Technical Specification

Business Intelligence


Evidence gathering
Evidence Gathering

  • The first stage of modelling is to gather evidence

  • This portfolio of evidence is itself a lightweight model

    • Used to communicate problems

    • As evidence for potential solutions

    • Useful to others as context


Evidence gathering1
Evidence Gathering

Example: Induction Process

  • Documentation

  • Stakeholder Analysis

    • Surveys

    • Interviews

  • Ethnography

  • Related Studies

Induction Policy

--------------------------- ---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

--------------------------- ---------------------------

SSLC Minutes

--------------------------- ---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

--------------------------- ---------------------------

Mission Statement

--------------------------- ---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------


Evidence gathering2
Evidence Gathering

Example: Induction Process

  • Documentation

  • Stakeholder Analysis

    • Surveys

    • Interviews

  • Ethnography

  • Related Studies

Induction Policy

--------------------------- ---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

--------------------------- ---------------------------

Q1: what?

Q2: why?

Q3: when?

SSLC Minutes

--------------------------- ---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

--------------------------- ---------------------------

Mission Statement

--------------------------- ---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

Stakeholders

Primary: - - - - - - - - - - -

Secondary: - - - - - - - - -

Key: - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


Evidence gathering3
Evidence Gathering

Example: Induction Process

  • Documentation

  • Stakeholder Analysis

    • Surveys

    • Interviews

  • Ethnography

  • Related Studies

Induction Policy

--------------------------- ---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

--------------------------- ---------------------------

Q1: what?

Q2: why?

Q3: when?

SSLC Minutes

--------------------------- ---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

--------------------------- ---------------------------

Mission Statement

--------------------------- ---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

Stakeholders

Primary: - - - - - - - - - - -

Secondary: - - - - - - - - -

Key: - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Observation Notes

0900 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

1100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

1200 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


Evidence gathering4
Evidence Gathering

Example: Induction Process

  • Documentation

  • Stakeholder Analysis

    • Surveys

    • Interviews

  • Ethnography

  • Related Studies

Induction Policy

--------------------------- ---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

--------------------------- ---------------------------

Q1: what?

Q2: why?

Q3: when?

SSLC Minutes

--------------------------- ---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

--------------------------- ---------------------------

Mission Statement

--------------------------- ---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

Stakeholders

Primary: - - - - - - - - - - -

Secondary: - - - - - - - - -

Key: - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Observation Notes

0900 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

1100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

1200 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Induction at Bolton

Induction at KCL


Scenarios and personas
Scenarios and Personas

  • Written Scenarios capture a person interacting with a system during a particular activity

  • Accompanying Personas can capture the context of that interaction (motivations, concerns, priorities, etc.)

  • Together they can help give insight into how different individuals experience a system


Scenarios and personas1
Scenarios and Personas

Induction Scenario

After students have registered at the centre the School of Arts and Media holds a welcome event where they are introduced to the course, given core materials and receive a welcome from library staff. The School then runs a two day induction workshop. During this time students are given a tour of the facilities by staff, and are introduced to their peers and personal tutor (one of the lecturing staff) at an icebreaking event. Their tutor then helps them to get to know one another a bit better by producing and sharing a professional CV. They also attend WebCT training and have talks and discussions on lifelong learning. After the workshop they engage in ongoing tutorials on topics such as diversity, personal planning and numeracy.

  • A scenario is a narrative account of how a particular interaction unfolds

    • Easy to understand

    • But can be ambiguous

  • A Persona helps to highlight key issues for imaginary (but realistic) participants


Scenarios and personas2
Scenarios and Personas

Persona: Louise

Louise is a new full-time student in the School of Arts and Media at Bolton University. She is confident of her own abilities, and excited about the new course. Louise took a few years out after college and is concerned about fitting in with younger students. Her accommodation is a few miles from campus, so she is worried about making friends and getting involved in social activities.

Induction Scenario

After students have registered at the centre the School of Arts and Media holds a welcome event where they are introduced to the course, given core materials and receive a welcome from library staff. The School then runs a two day induction workshop. During this time students are given a tour of the facilities by staff, and are introduced to their peers and personal tutor (one of the lecturing staff) at an icebreaking event. Their tutor then helps them to get to know one another a bit better by producing and sharing a professional CV. They also attend WebCT training and have talks and discussions on lifelong learning. After the workshop they engage in ongoing tutorials on topics such as diversity, personal planning and numeracy.


Scenarios and personas3
Scenarios and Personas

Persona: Tom

Tom is a Lecturer in the School of Arts and Media at Bolton University. He has worked at the University for over ten years, and is proud of their courses and facilities. Tom’s teaching load is very high, particularly in the first semester, and he is concerned that more pastoral activities (such as tutoring, skills training or induction) will have a negative impact on his time and workload.

Induction Scenario

After students have registered at the centre the School of Arts and Media holds a welcome event where they are introduced to the course, given core materials and receive a welcome from library staff. The School then runs a two day induction workshop. During this time students are given a tour of the facilities by staff, and are introduced to their peers and personal tutor (one of the lecturing staff) at an icebreaking event. Their tutor then helps them to get to know one another a bit better by producing and sharing a professional CV. They also attend WebCT training and have talks and discussions on lifelong learning. After the workshop they engage in ongoing tutorials on topics such as diversity, personal planning and numeracy.


Systems thinking
Systems Thinking


Systems thinking1
Systems Thinking

The system as a whole displays behaviour or properties that the individual components do not

The structure of the system (components, relationships) creates its behaviour, the emergent properties

Components with no structure have individual behaviour but no emergent properties

Systems Dynamics

Soft Systems Methodology

Critical Systems Heuristics


Soft systems method 7 stage description
Soft Systems Method: 7 stage description

Actions for change

Real world

Get information

Draw pictures

Debate with actors

Analyse problem situation

Compare models with problem situation

Construct conceptual problem

Conceive logical system CATWOE

Conceptual world


Soft systems method catwoe
Soft Systems Method: CATWOE

Customers/clients

Actors

Transformation

World view

Owners

Environment

  • a system

  • owned by Owner

  • to do What by Actor

  • by means of a Transformation

    • (given the constraints of some Environment)

  • in order to achieve X for Customer

  • Used when formulating definitions for a desired system:

    • called a root definition because it describes the root or core of the activity to be modelled

    • helpful when exploring the problem situation as a basis for change


Soft systems diagram
Soft Systems Diagram

Critical Systems Heuristics

  • Heuristics – because it uses a framework to discover ‘boundary’ judgements

    • To build a reference diagram (Soft Systems Diagram) which can provide a narrative for the evidence that is collected

    • Shows where evidence and information is missing or unsupported

  • Critical – because the framework encourages critical questioning of:

    • Legitimacy

    • Ownership

    • Assumptions

    • Motivations


Soft systems diagram name boundary and owner
Soft Systems Diagram:name, boundary and owner

Student Induction System

System owner ???

System Boundary


Soft systems diagram inputs outputs beneficiaries and victims
Soft Systems Diagram:inputs, outputs, beneficiaries and victims

Student Induction System

Manager/Supervisor

System owner ???

Students prepared for learning

Beneficiaries & victims

New Students


Soft systems diagram actors and processes
Soft Systems Diagram:actors and processes

Student Induction System

System owner ???

University Welcome

School Welcome

School Induction Activities

Students prepared for learning

Programme Induction

Intro to Student Services

Beneficiaries & victims

New Students


Soft systems diagram control sub systems
Soft Systems Diagram:control sub-systems

Student Induction System

Manager/Supervisor

System owner ???

Standards ???

Student feedback

Retention rates

????

measurements

Corrective action

University Welcome

School Welcome

School Induction Activities

Students prepared for learning

Programme Induction

Intro to Student Services

Beneficiaries & victims

New Students


Soft systems diagram resources authorities emergent properties
Soft Systems Diagram:resources, authorities, emergent properties

Student Induction System

Manager/Supervisor

System owner ???

webCt, Lifelong learning resources

Standards ???

Student feedback

Retention rates

????

Health & safety Legislation

measurements

Corrective action

University Welcome

School Welcome

School Induction Activities

Students prepared for learning

Student sense of belonging

Cohort identity

Student retention

Programme Induction

Intro to Student Services

Beneficiaries & victims

New Students


Soft systems diagram alliances conflicts beliefs values attitudes motivations
Soft Systems Diagram:alliances, conflicts, beliefs, values, attitudes, motivations

How can I increase student retention ? Everyone we lose costs £££

Student Induction System

alliances

Manager/Supervisor

System owner ???

conflicts

webCt, Lifelong learning resources

Standards ???

Student feedback

Retention rates

????

Health & safety Legislation

Beliefs

Values

Attitudes

Motivation

I have so much to do already and now thaey want me to blog and measure student satisfaction

measurements

Corrective action

University Welcome

School Welcome

School Induction Activities

Students prepared for learning

Student sense of belonging

Cohort identity

Student retention

Programme Induction

Intro to Student Services

Beneficiaries & victims

New Students


Soft systems activity
Soft Systems Activity

Scenario: Successfully responding to a JISC Call, and setting up a new project in a University context

Evidence:

Activity:

  • Drawing on both the evidence and your own experiences create a Soft Systems Diagram of this process

Uni bid review process

JISC Conditions

Uni Mission Statement

JISC Guide

JISC Call

Uni Best Practise Guide


The modelling journey1

The Modelling Journey

Part 2: Tools and Methods


Why a journey2
Why a Journey?

Modelling is a spectrum of activity

  • The soft

    • Portfolios of evidence

    • Scenarios and Personas

    • Systems Theory (SSM etc.)

  • The hard

    • Universal Modelling Language

    • Business Process Modelling

    • EA Modelling

Communication

Decision Support

Technical Specification

Business Intelligence


UML

  • Unified Modelling Language – created in the 1990’s by

  • Is a visual language for developing software systems

    • it has syntax and semantics

    • It is not a programming language

  • Two types of model

    • Structural

      • What is in the system and their relationships

    • Behavioural

      • Captures interactions in the system

  • 13 types of diagram

James Rumbaugh

And others

Grady Booch

Ivar Jacobsen


Identifying key areas
Identifying Key Areas

  • Use your systems diagram to help you to focus in on an area ( decomposition: breaking the problem into manageable chunks)

  • You can choose to start:

    • At the beginning

    • Where the most need for change is

    • The biggest opportunity for improvement is

  • Use noun and verb analysis to identify Objects ( nouns) and processes


Use case analysis
Use Case Analysis

  • Use cases model:

    • What the system should do

    • Who uses (benefits from) the system

    • From the user’s point of view

    • A Use Case captures a contract with the stakeholders of a system about its behaviour:

      • The Use Case describes how the system reacts to a request from a primary actor in order to achieve a goal

    • Use cases are essentially textual but have visual diagrams:

      • For each use case

      • A collection of use cases in a scenario (system)

    • Use case analysis gathers different requests together


Use case analysis for induction tours
Use Case Analysis for Induction Tours

The use case Sign up for Tours will execute

Display Tours

The use case Record Completed tourswill execute

Display Tours


Use case analysis for induction tours1
Use Case Analysis for Induction Tours

The use case Sign up for Tours will execute

Display Tours

The use case Record Completed tourswill execute

Display Tours

Both the Student and the School administrator will be able to Display tours

If a student’s results fall below a threshold mark, the school administrator will set up a literacy course for the student


Activity and sequence
Activity and Sequence

  • UML includes other notations for describing how use cases relate to one another

    • (Or what is inside a use case)

  • Activity Diagrams (workflow)

    • Show order and dependency

  • Sequence Diagrams (communication)

    • Show interaction and communication


Activity diagram
Activity Diagram

  • Describes workflow

    • Start and End states

    • Choice

    • Concurrency

    • Iteration

  • Logical partitions

    • To aid clarity

Introduction Course

CVs

Need Library Course?

[No]

Tutorials

[Yes]

Ice Breakers

Library Course

Intro to WebCT


Activity diagram1
Activity Diagram

  • Describes workflow

    • Start and End states

    • Choice

    • Concurrency

    • Iteration

  • Logical partitions

    • To aid clarity

Introduction

Induction

Introduction Course

CVs

Need Library Course?

[No]

Tutorials

[Yes]

Ice Breakers

Library Course

Intro to WebCT


Sequence diagram
Sequence Diagram

  • Describe interaction

    • Objects

    • Object Lifelines

    • Activation Boxes

    • Messages

  • Often describe one scenario of interaction

    • UML notes for clarity

School

Student

Services

Student

Start of Year

Enroll

Confirm

true

Student id


Sequence diagram1
Sequence Diagram

  • Describe interaction

    • Objects

    • Object Lifelines

    • Activation Boxes

    • Messages

  • Often describe one scenario of interaction

    • UML notes for clarity

School

Library

Student

Services

Student

Start of Year

Enroll

Confirm

true

Student id

Request Induction Schedule

Student requires id for interactions with School

Interaction for Enrollment:

Success Scenario

Check Library requirement

true

Induction Schedule


BPMN

  • Business Process Modelling Notation

    • 2001 – Version 1, 2009 version 2

    • Simple but expressive set of shapes for ease of understanding

  • For modelling workflows of objects triggered by events or messages

  • Very similar to UML Activity Diagrams

  • But unlike UML, BPMN can produce code that can be executed through a workflow engine

    • Either by its own transformation

    • Or by translation into Business Process Execution Language (not yet a simple transformation)



Enterprise architecture
Enterprise Architecture

  • A model of how a whole business fits together

    • Potentially broad and shallow

    • But capable of drilling down into areas of interest

  • Enterprise Architecture enables us to connect together models of parts of a business despite different:

    • Business areas

    • Modelling approaches

    • Complexity

    • Completeness


Example archimate
Example: Archimate

Welcome New

Students

Student Induction

Workshop

Ice

Breakers

CVs

Introduction

Course

Library

Course

Intro to

WebCT

Tutorials

Course Handbook


Example archimate1
Example: Archimate

Welcome New

Students

Student Induction

Workshop

Ice

Breakers

CVs

Introduction

Course

Library

Course

Start of new academic year

Intro to

WebCT

Tutorials

Course Handbook

Student

CV


Example archimate2
Example: Archimate

Welcome New

Students

Student Induction

Workshop

Ice

Breakers

CVs

Introduction

Course

Library

Course

Start of new academic year

Intro to

WebCT

Tutorials

Course Handbook

Student

CV

WebCT


Example archimate3
Example: Archimate

Welcome New

Students

Student Induction

Workshop

Ice

Breakers

CVs

Introduction

Course

Library

Course

Start ofnew academic year

Intro to

WebCT

Tutorials

Course Handbook

Student

CV

WebCT

Tutor

Head of

School

Academic

Academic

Student

Librarian


Conclusion
Conclusion

  • There is a broad spectrum of modelling

    • From simple to complex

    • From ambiguous to precise

  • Many tools and methodologies

    • E.g. Stakeholder analysis, Personas and Scenarios, Soft Systems Diagrams, UML, BPMN, Archimate

  • Model for a purpose

    • Choose appropriate Formality, Complexity and Completeness for your task


Next steps
Next Steps

  • Objectives:

  • To widen the perception of what modelling is

  • To demonstrate modelling techniques with a common example

  • To illustrate the affordances of those modelling approaches, and how they connect together

InnovationBase.net


Thank you

Mission Statement

--------------------------- ---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

Persona: Louise

Louise is a new full-time student in the School of Arts and Media at Bolton University. She is confident of her own abilities, and excited about the new course. Louise took a few years out after college and is concerned about fitting in with younger students. Her accommodation is a few miles from campus, so she is worried about making friends and getting involved in social activities.

Stakeholders

Primary: - - - - - - - - - - -

Secondary: - - - - - - - - -

Key: - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Observation Notes

0900 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

1100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

1200 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Thank You

Induction at Bolton

David Millard and Yvonne Howard

{dem, [email protected]


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