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RIGGING OVERVIEW. Updated Aug 7, 2013. Highline Overview. Highline Types Components of the Kootenay Highline System Highline Setup 4.Operation. Highline Types. Horizontal Highline Sloping Highline Drooping Highline. Highline Setup. Messenger Line.

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Rigging overview

RIGGING

OVERVIEW

Updated Aug 7, 2013


Highline overview

Highline Overview

  • Highline Types

  • Components of the Kootenay

    Highline System

  • Highline Setup

    4.Operation


Highline types

Highline Types

Horizontal Highline

Sloping Highline

Drooping Highline


Highline setup

Highline Setup

Messenger Line


Components of the kootenay highline system

Components of the Kootenay Highline System

Anchors

Pre-tension Back-tie

Kootenay Pulley

Track-lines

Tag-lines

Reeving-line

Raising Systems

Lowering systems

Tag line Hangers

High Points

Tensioning System


Components of the kootenay highline system1

Components of the Kootenay Highline System

Anchors


Components of the kootenay highline system2

Components of the Kootenay Highline System

Anchors


Components of the kootenay highline system3

Components of the Kootenay Highline System

Pre-tensioned Back-tie


Anchor systems

Anchor Systems


Components of the kootenay highline system4

Components of the Kootenay Highline System

Kootenay Pulley


Components of the kootenay highline system5

Components of the Kootenay Highline System

Track-lines


Components of the kootenay highline system6

Components of the Kootenay Highline System

Tag-lines


Components of the kootenay highline system7

Components of the Kootenay Highline System

Reeving-line

English Reeve


Components of the kootenay highline system8

Components of the Kootenay Highline System

Norwegian Reeving-lines


Components of the kootenay highline system9

Components of the Kootenay Highline System

English Reeving-lines


Components of the kootenay highline system10

Components of the Kootenay Highline System

Raising and Lowering Systems


Components of the kootenay highline system11

Components of the Kootenay Highline System

Tag line Hangers (Festoons)


Components of the kootenay highline system12

Components of the Kootenay Highline System

High Points


Components of the kootenay highline system13

Components of the Kootenay Highline System

Tensioning System


Components of the kootenay highline system14

Components of the Kootenay Highline System

Tensioning System


Components of the kootenay highline system15

Components of the Kootenay Highline System

Tensioning System


Highline setup1

Highline Setup

Safety Issues

Messenger Line

Pre-tensioning

Tensioning

Using Mechanical advantage systems


Highline setup2

Highline Setup

Safety Issues

PPE

Edge safety

Pay attention

Listen

No horsing around


Highline setup3

Highline Setup

Pre-tensioning

6:1

Places initial tension in the system


Highline setup4

Highline Setup

Tensioning

18:1 Rule – 1/2” Rope

12:1 Rule – 7/16” Rope


Highline setup5

Highline Setup

Using Mechanical Advantage

Systems


Operation

Operation

Commands

Lowering

Raising

Reeving


Highline rescue systems

HIGHLINE RESCUE SYSTEMS


Highline rescue system overview

Highline Rescue System Overview

Components of a highline rescue team

  • Lowering belay system

  • Raising belay system

  • Reversing the system

  • Tensioning the system


Highline rescue team

HIGHLINE RESCUE TEAM


Highline rescue team1

HIGHLINE RESCUE TEAM

  • Team Leader

  • Safety Officer

  • Edge Tender

  • Control/Operations

  • Static Anchor Team

  • Tag Line Team

  • Reeving Line Team

  • Medical/Attendant


Team leader

Team Leader

  • Identify highline location

  • Briefing and outlining objectives

  • Identify anchors with squad leaders

  • Give assignments


Safety officer

SAFETY OFFICER


Safety officer1

SAFETY OFFICER

  • Rescue situations rapidly change. The effective Safety Officer must be able to forecast potential safety issues.


Safety officer2

SAFETY OFFICER

  • The Safety Officer is responsible for monitoring and assessing the safety aspects of all team operations, door-to-door.


Safety officer3

SAFETY OFFICER

  • A team Safety Officer should be assigned to every rescue mission and training event.


Safety officer4

SAFETY OFFICER

  • Any member of the team can call a STOP to an operation if a safety concern is detected


Safety officer5

SAFETY OFFICER

  • Scene Safety

    • Establishes, and marks a minimum 6’ safety zone at the edge

    • All personnel must be on a tether beyond this safety zone


Safety officer6

SAFETY OFFICER

  • Scene Safety

    • Determine if the rigging location is safe

      • Loose rocks

      • Unstable overhang

      • Awareness environmental safety issues

        • Poison Oak

        • Hornet’s nest

        • Requirements for Personal Floatation Devices


Safety officer7

SAFETY OFFICER

  • Scene Safety

    • Checks each member’s minimum PPE

      • Helmet

      • Gloves

      • Harness

    • Establishes a Safe Zone 6’ from edge


Safety officer8

SAFETY OFFICER

  • Scene Safety

    • Responsible for selecting safe helicopter landing zone.

    • Assures an emergency medical plan is in place

    • Assures Horseplay does not occur


Safety officer9

SAFETY OFFICER

  • System Safety

    • Checks each Anchor

      • Proper anchor materials

      • Proper anchor for situation

      • Bomb-proof anchor system

      • Angles


Safety officer10

SAFETY OFFICER

  • System Safety

    • Checks each system to the component level

      • Knots

      • Proper carabiners in use

      • Carabiners locked

      • Proper and adequate edge protection in place


Safety officer11

SAFETY OFFICER

  • System Safety

    • Checks each System

      • Adequate MA

      • Proper overall setup

      • Proper equipment used


Safety officer12

SAFETY OFFICER

  • Edge Tender Safety

    • Edge tender has independent anchor

    • Edge tender is tethered before approaching the edge


Safety officer13

SAFETY OFFICER

  • Operation Safety

    • Assures change-over procedures are conducted in a safe manner.

    • Assures adequate medical resources are considered when making search team assignments.


Safety officer14

SAFETY OFFICER

  • Operation Safety

    • Monitors the entire operation.

    • The Safety Officer can stop the operation at any time.

    • Monitor vehicle safety: sleepiness and adequate breaks on convoys.


Edge tender

EDGE TENDER


Edge tender1

EDGE TENDER

  • Edge Tender Safety

    • Edge tender has independent anchor (may share a bomber anchor point, but may not attach to system anchors)

    • Edge tender is tied into an adjustable tether before approaching the edge

    • Clears loose rocks and tripping hazards from the edge


Edge tender2

EDGE TENDER

  • System Safety

    • Places ropes on appropriate edge protection

    • Assures ropes remain on edge protection.


Edge tender3

EDGE TENDER

  • Attendant Safety

    • Assist attendant and stokes over the edge


Edge tender4

EDGE TENDER

  • Attendant Safety

    • Weighting the system before going over the edge removes slack and stretch in the main line. 20’ of rope in operation, with a 2% stretch, will result in 3”-6” of sudden movement if system is not weighted.

      • Tightening of knots

      • Stretch of rope

      • Rigging extension


Edge tender5

EDGE TENDER

  • As attendant goes over the edge, the “Lower slow” used in approaching the edge should be slowed even more,

  • The attendant is rotating on a fixed point, neither moving back nor moving down.


Edge tender6

EDGE TENDER

  • Communicates with, and for, the attendant at the edge.

    • Halts system 1 meter from edge

      Edge TenderOps Leader

      “STOP!”

      “Why Stop?”

      “Attendant tension

      the system” <attendant weights system>

      “Lower slow”

      “Lowering slow”

      “Attendant at the edge” <attendant rotates

      over edge>

      “Lower slow”


Edge tender7

EDGE TENDER

  • Provides voice communication between Ops Leader and Attendant to relay changes in speed control

  • Observes the path of the rope to detect additional rope hazards requiring edge pro


Control operations officer

Control/Operations Officer

  • Once all systems are built and safety checked. Team Leader gives control over to Ops Officer

  • Ops officer in charge of communication and operations of all systems


Static anchor team

Static Anchor Team

  • Navigating to position can be challenging

  • Determine static anchor/pre tensioned back tie

  • High directional

  • Tag line system, raising and lowering

  • Install tag line hangers


Reeving line team

Reeving Line Team

  • Determine anchor

  • Determine high directional

  • Set up system

  • Operate system, raising and lower


Medical officer

Medical officer

  • First contact with subject

  • Independent rappel line to subject

  • While highline is being built medical officer will attend to subject, if access is available


Adjustable edge tender leash

ADJUSTABLE EDGE TENDER LEASH

  • 8 mm Accessory cord

    • Attached to independent anchor

    • Attached to harness with Figure-8 on a bight and locking carabiner

  • 6 mm prusik cord

    • Attached to 8mm cord with prusik

    • Attached to harness with Figure-8 on a bight and locking carabiner


Highline rescue systems1

HIGHLINE RESCUE SYSTEMS


Lowering belay systems

LOWERING/BELAY SYSTEMS


Single prusik lowering belay

SINGLE PRUSIK LOWERING BELAY


Raising systems

RAISING SYSTEMS


Tandem prusik raising belay

TANDEM PRUSIK RAISING BELAY


Raising systems1

RAISING SYSTEMS

  • Hauling without the aid of a system is a Mechanical Advantage of 1:1

  • Also known as the Armstrong Method


Raising systems2

RAISING SYSTEMS

  • Our simplest system is the Simple 2:1 Mechanical Advantage

  • Components are:

    • Rope

    • One pulley


Raising systems3

RAISING SYSTEMS

  • Our basic haul system is the simple 3:1 Mechanical Advantage

  • Components are:

    • Rope

    • Two (2) pulleys

    • One (1) rope grab


Raising systems4

RAISING SYSTEMS

  • With the addition of a single pulley, the 3:1 is converted to a 5:1Mechanical Advantage

  • Components are:

    • Rope

    • Four (4) pulleys


Raising systems5

RAISING SYSTEMS

  • Piggybacking the simple 2:1 onto the simple 3:1 provides a compound 6:1Mechanical Advantage


Raising systems6

RAISING SYSTEMS

  • Piggybacking the simple 2:1 onto the simple 5:1 provides a compound 10:1Mechanical Advantage


Reversing the systems

REVERSING THE SYSTEMS


Reversing the systems1

REVERSING THE SYSTEMS

  • Work on only one line at a time

  • Change the Main Line first, then the Belay Line

  • Wait for direction from the Ops Leader before you do anything.

  • Don’t anticipate a change to the system


Reversing the systems2

REVERSING THE SYSTEMS

  • Communicate

    • Tell the Ops Leader what you are doing,

      before you do it


Reversing lower to raise

REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE

  • Step 1

    • Assure you have the equipment you will need

      • One Pulley

      • One Progress Capture Device (PCD)


Reversing lower to raise1

REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE

  • Step 2

    • Lock off your lowering device


Reversing the systems3

REVERSING THE SYSTEMS

  • Step 2

    • Attach your Progress Capture Device (PCD)


Reversing lower to raise2

REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE

  • Step 3

    • Unlock the lowering device and load the PCD

  • Step 4

    • Attach the pulley to the LRH and rig the pulley


Reversing lower to raise3

REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE

  • Step 5

    • Assemble your Haul pulley onto the running end of the rope

  • Step6

    • Assemble your Rope Grab Device


Reversing lower to raise4

REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE

  • Step 5

    • Attach your Rope Grab Device

  • Advise Ops Leader,

  • “Main Line Ready to Haul!”


Reversing raise to lower

REVERSING RAISE TO LOWER

  • Step 1

    • Assure you have the additional equipment you will need

      • One Brake Bar Rack


Reversing raise to lower1

REVERSING RAISE TO LOWER

  • Step 2

    • Remove the pulley and Rope grab and attach to the anchor plate

      -- Lower the Load onto the Progress Capture Device (PCD)


Reversing raise to lower2

REVERSING RAISE TO LOWER

  • Step 3

    • Load the lowering device and lock it off

  • Step 4

    • Use the Load Release Hitch to transfer the load to the lowering device


Reversing raise to lower3

REVERSING RAISE TO LOWER

  • Step 5

    • Remove the Progress Capture Device

    • Retie the LRH

  • Step 6

    • Prepare to Lower

  • Advise Ops Leader,

    “Main Line Ready to Lower!”


Tensioning systems

TENSIONING SYSTEMS


Forces on a highline

Forces on a Highline

  • When tensioning the highline it is important not to over tension the system

  • Need to stay within 10:1 SSSF (Static System Safety Factor)

  • The larger the angle at the mid-point of the highline, the more the load at the anchors is multiplied


Tensioning highline

Tensioning Highline

  • Static System Safety Factor is a ratio between breaking strength of equipment and applied force (load)

  • Team standard is 10:1

  • Using a rescue load (2kn), 10:1 sssf = 20kn

  • All equipment in system must have at least a 20kn rating

  • Why use 10:1 SSF

  • 10:1 sssf covers worst case scenario under a dynamic situation


What is worst case scenario

What is Worst Case Scenario ?

  • In a rescue situation Worst Case Scenario is when rescuer is transitioning over the edge.

2kn load

Belay

1m

3m

1/3 Fall Factor

Fall

Amount of Rope

10kn to 15kn Peak Force


Belay competence drop test criteria

BELAY COMPETENCE DROP TEST CRITERIA

  • British Columbia Council on Technical Rescue

    de facto standard

    Belay Competence Drop Test Criteria

    • 200 kg (440 lb) mass

    • 1 meter (3.28 feet) fall

    • 3 meters (9.84 feet) rope

    • < 1 meter (3.28 feet) arrest distance

    • Maximum 15 kN (3,375 lb) peak impact force

      This test also calls for the maximum force transmitted through

      the system to the anchor point to be no greater than 15 kN (3,375 lbf.)


Belay competence drop test criteria1

BELAY COMPETENCE DROP TEST CRITERIA

  • Edge Transition is the Worst Case Scenario

    • Slippage through the belay device

    • Tightening of knots

    • Stretch of rope

    • Prussic extension

    • Rigging extension


Dynamic system safety factor

Dynamic System Safety Factor

  • Peak force under WCS between 10 – 15 kn

  • Using a rescue load (2kn), 10:1 SSSF = 20kn

  • 10kn peak force/20kn breaking strength = 2:1 DSSF

  • 15kn peak force/20kn breaking strength = 1.5:1 DSSF

  • Both within 10:SSSF

  • Using the Average Dynamic Force formula

    • Peak force = 12kn


Dynamic system safety factor1

Dynamic System Safety Factor

20kn

15kn peak force 1.5:1 dssf

10kn peak force 2:1 dssf

10:1 sssf

2kn load


Rigging overview

  • When tensioning the highline it is important not to over tension the system and stay within the 10:1 sssf

    • Using ½ inch rope rated at 40kn

    • 10:1 sssf = Max. 4kn load on anchor

    • Using 7/16 inch rope rated at 30kn

    • 10:1 sssf = Max. 3kn load on anchor


Tensioning rules

Tensioning Rules

  • One man rule

  • Ten % rule

  • Fifteen degree rule

  • Number of persons rule


Number of persons rule

Number of Persons Rule

  • Pull testing using dynamometers determined with ½” rope total mechanical advantage needed to stay within 10:1 sssf is 18:1

  • 7/16” rope 12:1 mechanical advantage needed


Standard tensioning system

Standard Tensioning System

  • Compound 6:1, 3:1 acting on a 2:1 in series.

  • Need 18:1, total 3 people


Standard tensioning system1

Standard Tensioning System

  • All anchor points can be on one anchor

  • BFT


Pre tension

Pre Tension

  • Pre tension before loading the system

  • One person pulling hand over hand with 6:1

  • No heave ho


Tensioning

Tensioning

  • When highline is fully loaded 3 people hand over hand

  • No heave ho

  • If rescue load, system not loaded until subject and rescuer are on system


Mechanical advantage

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE


Mechanical advantage1

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE


Rigging overview

  • Forces we encounter in SAR

  • Simple Machines

  • Mechanical Advantage of Pulley Systems


Rigging overview

  • Training Objectives

    • Participants will understand:

      • The Forces we encounter in SAR


Mechanical advantage2

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

  • FORCE

    • What is Force

    • What types of Force do we encounter

    • What are the Units of Force


Mechanical advantage3

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

  • What is Force?

    • Force is an external influence that may cause a body to accelerate. It may be experienced as a lift, a push, or a pull.

    • Force is a vector. All forces will have a magnitude and direction.


Rigging overview

  • Forces we encounter in SAR

    • Forces due to:

      • Gravity

      • Friction

      • Impulse

      • Applied Forces


Rigging overview

  • Gravity

    • g = 32.2 ft/sec2 = 9.8 m/s2

    • F = ma

    • F ≈ 0.10197 kg x 9.8 m/s2 = 1Newton (N)

    • A newton is the amount of force required to accelerate a body with a mass of one kilogram at a rate of one meter per second squared.

    • 1 kN = 1,000 N ≈ 224.81 lbf


Rigging overview

  • Gravity = Weight

    • 1 kN = 224.81 lbf

    • 80kg (0.8 kN ≈ 1 kN) for a ‘single load’,

    • 200kg (440 lbs = 1.95 kN ≈ 2 kN) for a ‘rescue load’

    • 280kg (617 lbs = 2.7 kN ≈ 3 kN) for a ‘three-man load’.


Rigging overview

  • Gravity = Weight

    • 1 kN = 224.81 lbf

    • 1 Person ≈ 1 kN

    • 2 Person ≈ 2 kN

    • 3 Person ≈ 3 kN


Rigging overview

  • Gravity = Weight

    • The average rescuer can hold or apply a .2 kN force with one hand (≈ 45 lbs)

    • The average rescuer can hold or apply a .4 kN force with two hands (≈ 90 lbs)

    • Hauling an rope ‘hand-over-hand’ is applying a force of 45-50 lbs


Rigging overview

  • Impulse

  • Reaction time to a failure or rope movement is 1 sec

  • In 1 sec a load will travel 16 feet


Mechanical advantage4

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

  • Simple Machines


Mechanical advantage5

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

  • Machines are affected by factors such as friction and elasticity

  • So the actual mechanical advantage of a simple machine will usually differ from its theoretical value.


Mechanical advantage6

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

Pulley:

  • Pulleys change the direction of a tension force on a flexible material, e.g. a rope or cable. In addition, pulleys can be "added together" to create mechanical advantage, by having the flexible material looped over several pulleys in turn. More loops and pulleys increases the mechanical advantage.


Mechanical advantage7

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

Pulley as a Lever:

  • The pulley is a variation of the wheel and axle.

  • The size of a pulley does not influence the MA.

  • The size of a pulley does influence the efficiency of the pulley.

  • The larger the pulley, the more efficient the pulley.


Mechanical advantage8

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

Pulley Types:

  • Fixed pulley

    • Provides change of direction ONLY


Mechanical advantage9

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

Pulley Types:

  • Movable pulley

    – Adds Mechanical Advantage


Mechanical advantage10

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

Pulley:

  • Pulleys change the direction of a tension force on a flexible material, e.g. a rope or cable.

  • Pulleys can be "added together" to create mechanical advantage, by having the flexible material looped over several pulleys in turn.

  • More loops and pulleys can increase the mechanical advantage.


Mechanical advantage11

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

Pulley Efficiency:

  • Two factors determine a pulley's efficiency:

    • Sheave size: the large the sheave diameter, the higher the efficiency.

    • Bushings and bearings: self-lubricating bushings are efficient, but they must be regularly maintained.Ball bearings are very efficient and since they are sealed, they do not require any maintenance.


Mechanical advantage12

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

  • Effective pulley systems must always have one side anchored and the other side attached to the moving load, known as the anchor side and the load side. There must be something to pull against


Mechanical advantage13

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

  • The longest distance a pulley system can be stretched, the distance from the anchored pulley to the moving pulley, is called the stroke.

  • The longer the stroke, the more useful the MA system.


Mechanical advantage14

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

  • Pulling the system down to its smallest stroke is called compression.

  • It is called de-set when the system is compressed so it will expand again when using the MA system as the Decent Control Device (DCD) to lower a load rather than to raise it.


Mechanical advantage15

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

  • Extension means to pull out a pulley system to its longest stroke. Re-set in when the system is extended again during raising operations and another haul segment is made on the main line.


Mechanical advantage16

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

  • All anchored pulleys are Change Of Direction (COD) only.


Mechanical advantage17

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

  • Pulleys that move with a load (unanchored pulleys) are simple machines that gain advantage.


Mechanical advantage18

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

  • Pulley systems are either simple, compound or complex.

  • Compound pulley systems are made up of at least two simple pulley systems.

  • Complex pulley systems are made up of at least one simple pulley system and at least one compound pulley system.


Mechanical advantage19

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

  • If the terminal end of a haul line is attached to the anchor, the simple pulley system will be EVEN

  • 2:1, 4:1, 6:1, 248:1


Mechanical advantage20

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

  • If the terminal end of a haul line is attached to the anchor, the simple pulley system will be EVEN

  • 1:1, 3:1, 5:1, 115:1


Mechanical advantage21

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

  • Simple pulley systems have a greater stroke than compound pulley systems of the same MA.


Mechanical advantage22

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

  • Mechanical Advantage


Mechanical advantage23

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

  • The Mechanical Advantage of a pulley system can be expressed as a ratio.

  • It is the ratio of the amount of force that must be applied to a haul line to move a load, divided by the weight of the object that must be moved.

  • It is the ratio of the weight of the object that must be moved to the amount of force that must be applied to move it.

  • 2:1 = 2 Units of output force will result from 1 Unit of input force


Rigging overview

  • Tomorrow 07:30

  • 24 hour packs

    • Helmet

    • Harness

    • Gloves

    • Orange Shirts / Green pants

    • Lunch

    • Water

    • Rain Gear


Demo hands on practice

DEMO&HANDS ON PRACTICE


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