Electromagnetism. Forces in nature:. How does matter interact? Four Fundamental Forces: Long range: Gravity Mid Range: Electromagnetic Short Range: Strong and Weak. Electric Charge (~Mass). Two types of electric charge: positive and negative Unit of charge is the coulomb [C]
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Forces in nature:
Two types of electric charge: positive and negative
Unit of charge is the coulomb [C]
Charge of electron (negative) or proton (positive)is
Charge is quantized
Charge is conserved
Like charges repel and opposites attract !!
Force by q1 on q2
Coulomb’s constant in vacuum:
Direction: along the line joining the two charges
Repulsive or attractive
If many charges are present:
Net force is on any charge is the vector sum of the forces from all the individual charges
The electric field at a point is the force acting on a test charge q at that point divided by the charge q
For a test charge q
has the direction and sense of the force on a positive charge.
is outwards a positive charge and inwards a negative charce
The electric field due to a collection of N point charges is the vector sum of the individual electric fields due to each charge: