Electromagnetism
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Electromagnetism. Forces in nature:. How does matter interact? Four Fundamental Forces: Long range: Gravity Mid Range: Electromagnetic Short Range: Strong and Weak. Electric Charge (~Mass). Two types of electric charge: positive and negative Unit of charge is the coulomb [C]

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Electromagnetism

Forces in nature:

  • How does matter interact?

  • Four Fundamental Forces:

    • Long range: Gravity

    • Mid Range: Electromagnetic

    • Short Range: Strong and

    • Weak


Two types of electric charge: positive and negative

Unit of charge is the coulomb [C]

Charge of electron (negative) or proton (positive)is

Charge is quantized

Charge is conserved


  • The electric force between charges q1 and q2 is

  • repulsive if charges have same signs

  • (b) attractive if charges have opposite signs

Like charges repel and opposites attract !!


Coulomb's Law

Coulomb’s law:

Force by q1 on q2

Coulomb’s constant in vacuum:

Direction: along the line joining the two charges

Repulsive or attractive


The superposition principle

If many charges are present:

Net force is on any charge is the vector sum of the forces from all the individual charges

In general:


The electric field

The electric field at a point is the force acting on a test charge q at that point divided by the charge q

For a test charge q

has the direction and sense of the force on a positive charge.


is outwards a positive charge and inwards a negative charce


The superposition principle for fields

The electric field due to a collection of N point charges is the vector sum of the individual electric fields due to each charge:





Flows With Sources

(http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/8/8.02T/f04/visualizations/vectorfields/02-particleSource/02-ParticleSource_320.html)


Flows with sinks

(http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/8/8.02T/f04/visualizations/vectorfields/01-particleSink/01-ParticleSink_320.html)


Circulating flows

(http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/8/8.02T/f04/visualizations/vectorfields/03-particleCirculate/03-PartCircMotion_320.html)


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