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Electromagnetism

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Electromagnetism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Electromagnetism. Forces in nature:. How does matter interact? Four Fundamental Forces: Long range: Gravity Mid Range: Electromagnetic Short Range: Strong and Weak. Electric Charge (~Mass). Two types of electric charge: positive and negative Unit of charge is the coulomb [C]

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Electromagnetism

Forces in nature:

  • How does matter interact?
  • Four Fundamental Forces:
    • Long range: Gravity
    • Mid Range: Electromagnetic
    • Short Range: Strong and
    • Weak
slide2

Electric Charge (~Mass)

Two types of electric charge: positive and negative

Unit of charge is the coulomb [C]

Charge of electron (negative) or proton (positive)is

Charge is quantized

Charge is conserved

slide3

Electric Force (~Gravity)

  • The electric force between charges q1 and q2 is
  • repulsive if charges have same signs
  • (b) attractive if charges have opposite signs

Like charges repel and opposites attract !!

slide4

Coulomb\'s Law

Coulomb’s law:

Force by q1 on q2

Coulomb’s constant in vacuum:

Direction: along the line joining the two charges

Repulsive or attractive

slide5

The superposition principle

If many charges are present:

Net force is on any charge is the vector sum of the forces from all the individual charges

In general:

slide6

The electric field

The electric field at a point is the force acting on a test charge q at that point divided by the charge q

For a test charge q

has the direction and sense of the force on a positive charge.

slide7

Electric field created by a point charge Q

is outwards a positive charge and inwards a negative charce

slide8

The superposition principle for fields

The electric field due to a collection of N point charges is the vector sum of the individual electric fields due to each charge:

slide13

Flows With Sources

(http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/8/8.02T/f04/visualizations/vectorfields/02-particleSource/02-ParticleSource_320.html)

slide14

Flows with sinks

(http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/8/8.02T/f04/visualizations/vectorfields/01-particleSink/01-ParticleSink_320.html)

slide15

Circulating flows

(http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/8/8.02T/f04/visualizations/vectorfields/03-particleCirculate/03-PartCircMotion_320.html)

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