Air quality management of particulate matter emitted from vehicular sources in delhi
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Air Quality Management of Particulate Matter Emitted from Vehicular Sources in Delhi. by P. Goyal, Neeru Jaiswal, Rashmi Mittal Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. Overview of the Presentation. Introduction Objective of the study

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Air quality management of particulate matter emitted from vehicular sources in delhi

Air Quality Management of Particulate Matter Emitted from Vehicular Sources in Delhi

by

P. Goyal, Neeru Jaiswal, Rashmi Mittal

Centre for Atmospheric Sciences,

Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi


Overview of the presentation

Overview of the Presentation

  • Introduction

  • Objective of the study

  • Model Formulation

  • Study Area

  • Emission Inventory

  • Results and Discussions

  • Conclusions


Introduction

Introduction

  • Delhi is one of the 10 polluted cities of the world.

  • Particulate Matter (PM) are mainly emitted from industrial

    process, auto exhaust and domestic sources.

  • Total number of vehicles registered in Delhi was 4.17

    million in 2004.

  • PM levels are increasing continuously despite number of

    mitigation measures.


Objectives of the study

Objectives of the Study

Air Quality Management of PM in Delhi through:

  • Development of line source model designed for low and

    moderate wind conditions.

  • Detailed source inventory of vehicles.

  • Forecast of emission of PM as per the existing scenario in

    next 10 years.

  • Temporal variation of PM in Delhi.

  • Spatial variation of PM concentration in Delhi.

  • Identification of hot spots in Delhi due to PM.


Model formulation

Model Formulation

The concentration of PM due to line source in low winds (u< 1 m/sec) conditions is

C =

and the concentration for moderate winds (u> 1 m/sec) is

C =

Where,

C = concentration (mg/m3) ; Q = Source strength (mg/sec) ;

U = Wind speed (m/sec) ;

(x’, y’, z’) = location of source (m) ; (x, y, z) = location of receptor (m) ;

(sx, sy,sz) = dispersion parameters (m) in x, y, z directions respectively.


Study area

Study Area

  • A gridded source inventory

    over an area of Delhi City

    (26Km × 30Km) has been

    made.

  • In each grid, curved roads are

    approximated by number of

    straight lines and each of

    these straight line is

    considered as a separate source.

  • The traffic volume for each

    road has been obtained

    individually.

  • Total emission rate of each grid

    is estimated from the

    contributions of all the source

    located within that grid.


Emission inventory

Emission Inventory

Emission rate of PM has been estimated in each grid on hourly basis by using secondary data of vehicular traffic and apportioned according to the following methods:

Method I:

Where,

E = Emission rate (gm/sec)

i = Index, varies over six categories of vehicles.

Ni = Number of registered vehicles in i th category

TDi =Travel demand for vehicular category i (km/day)

VKT= Vehicle Kilometer traveled (Km)

ei = Emission factor (g/km) for the pollutant of the vehicular category i

Vehicles are categorized into 6 vehicle category: Cars, Two wheeler, Three wheeler, Buses, Taxi, and Goods vehicles.


Emission inventory1

Emission Inventory….

  • Method II:

  • Different vehicles were monitored at the major traffic intersections and national

    highways, nearly at 36 places in Delhi.

  • Emission rates of PM are estimated by using the emission factors of each

    pollutant for each vehicle group.

  • Where,

  • E = Emission rate(gm/sec)

  • i = Index, varies over six categories of vehicles

  • Ni = Number of vehicle of i th category monitored per hour (vehicle/hour)

  • L = Road length in each monitored grid (km)

  • ei = Emission factor (g/km) for the pollutant of the vehicular category i

  • Emission of PM in each monitored grid over the road length in that particular grid

    is calculated.

  • The linear interpolation technique is used to estimate the emission made in the rest

    of the grids of the study area


Emission inventory2

Emission Inventory….

  • Method III

  • Lengths of major, minor and residential roads were estimated in each grid through

    the measurements.

  • Monitored traffic data reveals that the traffic volume due to major, minor and

    residential roads is in the ratio of 43: 33:24 respectively.

  • Total estimated load of PM on the study area is taken as 12.77 tons/day (CPCB)

  • Emission of PM in the i th grid is calculated by the following expression:

  • Where,

  • Ei = total emission in i th grid

  • LMi = total length of the major roads in the i th grid

  • Lmi = total length of the minor roads in the i th grid

  • Lri = total length of the residential roads in the i th grid

  • C = total emission of the pollutant in whole study area.


Results and discussion

Results and Discussion

Hourly variation of emission rates of PM has been determined by different methods, which reveals that emission of PM from different methods are well in agreement with observed values.

An emission inventory of vehicles has been prepared over the map of Delhi, which gives emission rate of PM in each grid.

PM Emission at ITO


Results and discussion1

Results and Discussion

Forecasting of PM emissions, on the basis of present emission scenario, for future years (2005-2014) is showing slightly increasing values.

EURO-I

EURO-II

EURO-III

EURO-IV

PRE-EURO


Results and discussion2

Results and Discussion

  • Hourly variation of concentration and emission rates of PM

    shows two peaks during the day hours. First peak occurs

    between 9 AM to 11 AM and second is between 5 to 7 PM.

  • A comparative study of model and observed concentration

    of PM during the day hours shows that model is always over

    predicting but remains within a factor of two.

Temporal variation of PM concentration and Source Strength

4-hourly averaged concentration at Nizzamuddin monitoring station


Results and discussion3

Results and Discussion

Isopleths of PM reflects that hotspots in Delhi at ITO, Shivaji Stadium, Cannaught Place, Dhaula Kuan and Laxmi Nagar have maximum values of PM ranging from 300-600 mg/m3 which are beyond NAAQS (200 mg/m3).

Spatial variation of PM concentration in Delhi (January, 2004).


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • The present line source model, appropriate for low wind and

    traffic condition of Delhi can be used for air quality impact

    assessment due to vehicular traffic in other cities like Delhi.

  • The emission inventory of Delhi with respect to PM can be

    used for emission control as a first step for air quality

    management.

  • Forecasting of emission of future years may be used for

    making the future strategy of air quality management.

  • Model computation of PM shows that concentration of PM

    are beyond the NAAQS at most of the places in Delhi.

  • The present isopleths of various concentration of PM can be

    used for emission control and regulatory purposes.


Air quality management of particulate matter emitted from vehicular sources in delhi

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