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Terrorism defined…. The calculated use of violence to instill fear, intended to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of a goal. Goals of Terrorism. Political Terrorism Religious Terrorism Ideological Terrorism. Political Terrorism.

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Terrorism defined…

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Terrorism defined

Terrorism defined…

  • The calculated use of violence to instill fear, intended to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of a goal.


Goals of terrorism

Goals of Terrorism

  • Political Terrorism

  • Religious Terrorism

  • Ideological Terrorism


Political terrorism

Political Terrorism

  • Focuses on governments. Usually the terrorists disagree with a government.


Examples

Examples

  • World Trade Center & Pentagon bombings - 2001

  • USS Cole bombing in Yemen - 2000

  • U.S. Embassy attacks in Africa - 1998

  • World Trade Center Bombing - 1993

  • Bombing of U.S. Army Barracks in Beiruit, Lebanon - 1983


Religious terrorism

Religious Terrorism

  • Groups feel that their religion is the one true religion and others are false. Focuses on attacking other religious groups or non-religious groups who they feel try to undermine theirs.


Examples1

Examples

  • Middle East: Jews vs. Palestinians (Muslims)

  • Hostage Crisis at Munich Olympics - 1972

  • Ireland: Catholics vs. Protestants


Ideological terrorism

Ideological Terrorism

  • Focuses on Beliefs, theories, and aims of a particular group. People commit terrorist acts because of their belief in a certain cause.


Examples2

Examples

  • Oklahoma City Federal Building bombing - 1995

  • Killing of Abortion Doctors

  • Environmental Terrorism

  • Militia Groups - unofficial groups of armed civilians


Terrorism defined

Oklahoma City Bombing


Most common methods used by terrorists

Most common methods used by Terrorists

  • Bombings

  • Armed Attacks

  • Assassinations

  • Kidnappings


Why do they commit acts of terror

Rational Motivation

Actions --> Desired result

Psychological Motivation

Belief that their view is right

Need to belong

Justification of their own existence

To be a “martyr”

Cultural Motivation

Culture feels threat to existence

Deeply rooted values in place

Why do they commit acts of terror?


Major terrorist groups

Major Terrorist Groups

  • Al-Qaeda: loosely knit group around world

  • Hamas: Palestinian group opposed to Israel

  • Hezbollah: Palestinian group opposed to Israel

  • PLO: Palestine Liberation Organization

    **Each of these groups are fighting a holy war or “jihad”

  • IRA: Irish Republican Army: Irish Catholic group whose aim is to get England out of Northern Ireland


Terrorism defined

Al-Qaeda

Hamas


Terrorism defined

Hezbollah

PLO


Terrorism defined

Irish Republican Army


Terrorism in the future

Terrorism in the future

  • Higher levels of violence

  • Increased technological capabilities

  • More use of chemical & biological warfare

    • Chemical - toxins (mustard gas, nerve gas, etc)

    • Biological - anthrax, plague, small pox, ebola

  • Ecological Terrorism

    • I.e. blowing up dams, attacks on oil companies


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