The Collapse of the Republic. Roman Empire at death of Julius Caesar. Land Reform. By 133 B.C., Roman politics had polarized around two factions in the Senate. On the one hand were the "Optimates," the better people –– people whose only interest lay with wealth and the senatorial class.
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Roman Empire at death of Julius Caesar
By 133 B.C., Roman politics had polarized around two factions in the Senate.
On the one hand were the "Optimates," the better people –– people whose only interest lay with wealth and the senatorial class.
Numerically small but politically powerful, the Optimates were by all accounts conservative – they were the defenders of the good old days, defenders of the status quo.
On the other hand, there were the "Populares," the champions of the depressed portion of the citizenry.
The Populares demanded the redistribution of the land to the dispossessed peasants who now flooded into Rome as well as a reform of the voting procedure.
Marius & Sulla kept the citizens at work.
To make money, Caesar had himself appointed in charge of Gaul (France) where he went about fighting anyone he could find. This is the great king, Versingetorix surrendering
Pompey fled from Rome and joined his army in Greece. Caesar was declared absolute ruler, or one who has total power
90% of the population was engaged in farming
The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly locals.
Trajan – born in Spain. He was adopted by previous emperor, Nerva – expanded Empire
Hadrian – he was a Stoic. Spent a lot of time putting down rebellions and building (remember his wall in N. England to keep out the Scots
Antonius Pius – Got his name not from being a religious man, but forcing the Senate to make Deify Hadrian
Marcus Aurelius – also a Stoic philosopher. Spent most of the last 10 years of his life leading troops against Germanic tribes.