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Data Collection. The boring but have to get through stuff……. First…. A basic understanding of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports and How it fits with Problem Solving Model. What is “ Positive Behavioral Support”?. PBIS focuses on PROACTIVE support strategies that

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Data Collection

The boring but have to get through stuff……


A basic understanding of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports and How it fits with Problem Solving Model

What is“Positive Behavioral Support”?

PBIS focuses on PROACTIVE support strategies that

  • reduce the likelihood of problem behavior

  • allow individual students to be as independent and successful as possible in the school setting.

  • encompass a range of strategies from systemic to individual supports

PBIS Continuum

Intensive Interventions -individualized strategies supporting students with high risk behaviors


Universal Interventions – proactive strategies supporting all students


Targeted Interventions –specialized strategies supporting students with

at risk behaviors

80% of Students

Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports




  • School-wide PBIS

  • System wide procedures

  • School wide systems

    - Classroom systems

    - Non classroom systems

  • -Proactive management


  • Informal/formal data

  • collection and evaluation

  • PSM Team / IAP / IEP

  • PSM Interventions

  • IAP or IEP

  • Functional Behavior

  • Assessment

  • Behavior Intervention Plan

  • Data collection, assessment,

  • observation

  • Mental Health in the


  • PSM Team / IAP / IEP

    -Formal evaluation

    -Functional Behavior


    -Behavior Intervention Plan

  • Manifestation Determination

  • Short-Term Suspension

  • Analysis Worksheet

Problem Solving Continuum


1 – 7 %


5 - 15 %

Levels of Intervention


80 - 90 %

School-wide systems to support student achievement.

Adapted from Sugai and Horner

How Do the Processes Align?

The most important alignment is that both support most students through “universal” school/classroom processes, some students through more “targeted” support, and a small group with the most “intensive” support

  • Baseline data collection

  • Analysis of data collected

  • Problem definition

  • Design interventions

  • Identification of who, when, where teaching will occur

  • Implementation of interventions

  • Charting/Progress Monitoring

  • Analysis of progress

  • Continue implementation, change the interventions some, change the interventions significantly

  • Continue with the review plan, intervene, analyze process

  • Based in Behavior Analysis


Other Areas of Alignment Include:


Data Collection

Collecting Data in Many Ways to

Assist in the Development of

Intervention Strategies

Why do you need to collect data?

  • to implement best teaching practices

  • to report progress to parents

  • to collect information regarding a student

  • or students’ performance

  • to address the I.D.E.A. “Special Factors”

  • requirement for a student with an IEP

  • to monitor a behavior or the response to an

  • intervention directed towards the behavior

  • to determine eligibility for accommodations or educational services

Why do we collect data and why is it so important that the data be objective and accurate?

  • Data is collected for a variety of reasons.

    • To establish base-line data.

    • To identify behavioral patterns

      • Time

      • Frequency

      • Duration

      • Intensity

    • To measure student behavior in specific settings or contexts.

    • To provide objective and accurate data to evaluate student growth.

      • Data collected must be unbiased and purely objective.

      • Data must be accurate and free of speculation or personal opinion.

      • Data should never be influenced by other students or related consequences and should only reflect the behavior of the student being observed.

Where should we collect data?

  • Data should be collected in as many settings and contexts as possible.

  • Data collection is important in areas where behaviors are not observed to help substantiate a lack of stimuli.

When should we collect data?

  • Time of day or schedule is sometimes very important in determining student behavior patterns.

  • Fatigue or the end of a medication cycle might give way to a behavioral episode, so it is important to not leave out any period during the day.

How do we use the data collected?

  • Data collected will provide information about specific behavior patterns.

  • Data will help identify stimuli or triggers for student behavior.

  • Data will provide observed responses to specific stimuli.

  • Data collection is an important component of the Functional Behavior Assessment process.

  • Data will help provide a picture of the child and give the care-giver an objective base from which to develop a hypothesis about student’s behavior.

  • This hypothesis will serve as a platform on which to build a Behavior Intervention Plan.

Who should data be collected for?

  • Data collection is not limited to students with behavioral needs.

  • Any type of student need should be identified and based on objective observation or assessment.

  • IEPs are based on data collected from a variety of performance and functional levels.

    • Social/Emotional

    • Health/Physical

    • Intelligence

    • Academic Performance

    • Communication

What is the final use and purpose of the data collected?

  • The ultimate outcome we want from effective and accurate data is a complete understanding of the child and a road map to success in meeting the child’s needs and providing an educational environment in which the child can learn.

  • This is after all the goal of special education to provide a free and appropriate public education for all special needs children.

  • To level the playing field by providing modifications, accommodations and services to meet the specific needs of the children  

The Rules of Data Collection

  • Meaningful and relevant to the behavior

  • Unobtrusive as possible

  • Respect the dignity of the student and the student’s age

  • Promote independence

  • Foster peer acceptance

Educational Team Member’s Responsibility?

Teacher Responsibilities

  • Identify and define skill/behavior

  • Establish BASELINE and CRITERIA

  • Create a user-friendly data collection method

  • Train team members to collect data across environments

  • Review and analyze data weekly

  • Modify programs based on data

Related Service Personnel Responsibilities

  • Evaluate in specialty areas for present level of performance (baseline)

  • Provide recommendations to educational team based on evaluation

  • Evaluate in specialty area for student progress (criteria)

Para-Professional Responsibilities

  • Participate in data collection training

  • Collect data in environments where the teacher may not be present and during instruction

  • Review andanalyze data with educational staff

Parent Responsibilities

  • Participate in data collection training

  • Collect data in home and community settings

  • Share data with educational team on a regular basis

How to Select a Data Collection Method?

Data Collection Options

  • Indirect or Informant Reports;

  • Direct Observation; and,

  • Combination System.

Frequency Count (Rate)

Interval Recording

Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (A-B-C)

Duration Recording

Permanent Product


Environmental Analysis

Task Analysis

Skills Checklist


Digital Images


Direct Data Assessment

Frequency Count

Number of times the behavior or skill occurred

Interval Recording

A-B-C Analysis

Antecedent Behavior Consequence



Total Time_______



Total Time_______



Total Time_______



Total Time_______

Duration Recording

Permanent Product









Environmental Analysis

Behavior or skill






Direct Observation of Behavior

  • Must be observable

    • sight or hearing

    • occurrence or non-occurrence

  • Definable

    • two or more people can agree

  • Countable and measurable

    • communicate using a number

Helpful Hints

  • Measure only one behavior/skill

  • Clearly define the behavior/skill

  • Determine the correct data collection method

  • Determine what environments data will be taken

  • Provide training for accuracy and objectivity

Descriptions of Problem Behavior

  • Trish is aggressive.

Concrete Description of Behavior

  • Trish hits other students during recess when she does not get her way.

Description of Behavior

  • Carlos is disruptive.

Concrete Description of Behavior

  • Carlos makes irrelevant and inappropriate comments during class discussion.

Academic Engaged Time

  • Academic engaged time refers to attending to material and task, making the appropriate motor response, and asking for assistance in an appropriate manner.

Total Disruptive Behavior

  • Total disruptive behavior is a class of behaviors that disturbs, the classroom ecology and interferes with instruction. Examples of disruptive behaviors include being out of seat without permission, not complying with teacher instruction, hitting, biting, making any audible noises or vocalizations that disrupt the environment, yelling, cursing, and taking others’ property.

Total Negative Social Interation

  • Total negative social interaction is defined as behaviors that disturb ongoing play activities and involves physical or verbal aggression. Examples of these disruptive behaviors include hitting, biting, curing, threatening, and grabbing.

Time Spent Alone

  • Time spent alone is defined as when the target student is not within 10 feet of any other children, is not socially engaged, and is not participating in any activity with other children.

Setting Events

  • I - Instruction – This is instruction time where the teacher is providing direct instruction to the individual student.

  • G - Group – This is an event where there is a group of students or individuals involved in an activity or instruction.

  • T – Transition – This is a time where the student is moving from class to class or activity to activity. Usually when there is less supervision than in other settings.

  • S – Seat Work – This is the time allocated to the student to work on his/her own in the classroom.


  • Environmental settings the child experiences during the day

    • Academic Classroom (math, science, social studies or English)

    • Gymnasium

    • Lunchroom

    • Hallway

    • Music room

  • The structure and presentation may vary and may provide for different behavioral opportunities

  • Different contexts may also offer different challenges to the student and may trigger different behavior responses.

    • Example might be:

      • Academic learning challenges.

      • Physical challenges in PE.

      • Social challenges in group activities like music

Techniques for Measuring Behavior

  • Measures of Time Passage

    • duration recording

    • latency recording

    • time sampling

  • Amount or Frequency

    • event recording

    • interval recording

Amount or Frequency

  • Event Recording

    • Behaviors that have a discrete beginning and end

  • Interval Recording

    • Behavior happens very frequently and lasts for a discrete period of time


  • What events, persons or environmental factors are present when the behaviors occur?

    • Events examples

      • Doing math problems (not understanding)

      • Playing basketball and being dominated

      • Giving a speech in front of the class and struggling with words.

      • Asked to do school work

    • Persons in the setting

      • Class bully

      • X-girlfriend

      • Demanding teacher perceived as an enemy

      • Group of students ignoring the child

    • Environmental factors

      • Temperature in the room

      • Physical location of desk

      • Hunger, thirst of illness.

      • Social problems or problems at home.

Time Passage

  • Duration Recording

    • want to know how long the behavior lasts

  • Latency Recording

    • want to know how long before the behavior starts

Recording Sheets

  • Student’s name

  • Date or dates of observation

  • Observer name and role

  • Start and end time

  • Setting of observation

  • Definition of behavior being observed

  • Key to any codes used

Event Recording

  • Advantage

    • easily converted into a graph

  • Limitations

    • requires behavior that occurs at a relatively stable level and is easy to count

    • not useful when behavior occurs at high rates or for extended period of time

Sample of Event Record

Sample of Event Record

What types of behavior might you use event recording to measure?

Innovative techniques

  • Chart

  • Clipboard

  • Tape

  • Beads

  • Beans/coins/paperclips

  • Golf counter

  • Knitting counter

Interval Recording

  • Requires undivided attention during intervals

  • Watch student during entire interval

  • Record whether behavior occurred

  • Intervals are approximately 10 to 30 seconds each

Sample of Interval Recording

Sample of Interval Recording

Interval Recording

  • Advantages

    • applies to virtually any target behavior

    • can be converted to percent

    • yields data of relative frequency and duration

  • Disadvantages

    • requires accurate measure of behavior in relation to a small amount of time

    • requires undivided attention

What types of behavior might you measure using interval recording?

Innovative ways to use interval recording

  • Timers

  • Stop watches

  • Use breaks between intervals

    • On 30 seconds

    • Rest 10 seconds

Duration Recording

  • Use a stopwatch or a watch with a second hand

  • Start timing when behavior starts

  • Stop when behavior ends

Sample Duration Recording

Duration Recording

  • Advantages

    • produces a percentage

    • measures behaviors that occur at extremely high rates and/or extended periods of time

  • Limitations

    • requires discrete behaviors

    • requires a stopwatch

What types of behaviors might you measure using duration recording?

Latency Recording

  • Measures how long it takes for behavior to begin

    • use a stopwatch or watch with a second hand

    • start timing when request for behavior is given

    • stop timing when behavior is initiated

Sample Latency Recording

Latency Recording

  • Advantages

    • can easily be converted to an average

  • Limitations

    • requires discrete behavior

    • requires a stopwatch

What types of behavior might you measure using latency recording?

Momentary Time Sampling

  • Set up time intervals

  • Observe behavior only at the end of the time interval

  • Record whether the behavior is or is not occurring at that particular time.

Sample Momentary Time Sampling

Momentary Time Sampling

  • Advantages

    • Data can easily be converted to percent

    • Does not interrupt the delivery of instruction

  • Limitations

    • requires a large number of observations to allow for interpretation of data

What types of behavior might you measure using momentary time sampling?


  • Advantages

    • allows the observer to plot the relationship between two or more variables

    • easy to complete and interpret

    • useful in deciding about more focused assessment


  • Limitations

    • May not capture complete picture of social/environmental context of behavior

    • May fail to distinguish between low and high intensity behavior

    • Technical adequacy may vary from person to person

Teach Self Control

  • Measure

  • Reward

  • Evaluate

Ways to Strengthen Measurement of Behavior

  • Clearly define behavior(s) and regularly review definition(s).

  • Assure that observers and interviewers have adequate training and experience.

  • Select appropriate assessment strategies for behavior(s) and context(s).

Ways to Strengthen Measurement of Behavior (continued)

  • Collect information across time and settings using multiple strategies and persons.

  • Conduct routine checks of the accuracy of observer scoring/recording procedures.

Summary of Data Collection

  • Provides data to determine success of BIP

  • Measures improvement for student and professionals

  • Teaches protocol for new behavior

  • Alerts staff to use of specific consequences impacting positive or negative behavior

10. Student praised privately

9. Whole class praised

8. Student praised by other students

7. Student praised in front of other students

6. Student’s work displayed

5. Student’s name mentioned in assembly

4. Student receives positive comment on written work

3. Parent informed about good behavior

2. Student receives good marks on report card

Bonus Slide: Positive Interventions: Top 10

And the number 1 positive intervention…

……Teacher Reaction!

“Verbal and physical teacher reactions are the simplest ways to acknowledge and reinforce acceptable behavior and to acknowledge and provide negative consequences for unacceptable behavior…” (Marzano, 2003)

And Now What?








Organize and Summarize

  • Record behaviors that can be seen and measured

  • Collect information across time and settings

  • Utilize multiple observers, if possible

  • Utilize data collection tools

Be Specific

Be Concise

Be Descriptive

Just the facts!

Analyze the Data

  • Are there patterns?

  • Are there specific locations,times, subjects or people? (Triggers)

  • Are there physical signals of impending problems?

  • Are there home concerns? Divorce? Death? Illness? Transition?

  • How often do the behaviors occur? (frequency)

  • How long do behaviors last? (duration)

  • How severe or damaging are the behaviors? (intensity)

  • Can the student continue with their school day when behavioral episode is over?


Of Concern

(What student does)


(How often occurs per hour, day week)


(How damaging or destructive: mild, moderate, severe)


(How long lasts: minutes, hours)

Example Format

for Data Analysis


Of Concern

(What student does)


(How often occurs per hour, day week)


(How damaging or destructive: mild, moderate, severe)


(How long lasts: minutes, hours)

Intervention and Evaluation

  • Change aspects of the environment that trigger

  • challenging behavior

  • Teach the student more acceptable ways to get their

  • needs met

  • Change aspects of the environment that happen

  • following the behavior

  • Collect data and evaluate impact of interventions on

  • behavior


What We Should Know About Behaviors

Focus on Tiers (Levels) I & II as General Education Requirement

Tier I

  • Data on Office & Discipline referrals and Actions that took place

  • School wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

  • Second Step

    Tier II

  • Direct behavior training (social skills)

  • Additional training or groups (self-instruction, anger control, organizational skills)

  • Development of Programs in the school to address top areas of need

-George Batsche

Focus of Tier (Level) III as More Formal Process

Team Meets & Typically begins

  • Formal Collection of data (Frequency data)

  • Completion of Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)

  • Design of a Behavioral Intervention Plan (BIP)

  • Implementation of BIP

  • Progress Monitoring

-George Batsche

What about Progress Monitoring & Peer Comparisons?

Level of Behavior “necessary for success” versus Level of Current, Local Peer Performance

Level of Behavior Necessary for Success (Proficient Level)

Level of Current, Local Peer Performance

  • 75% for

  • On Task

  • Compliant

  • Accuracy of Work

Peer could be as high as 90% but this is more than proficient. National Standard (NCLB) is proficient.

-George Batsche

But What About the Most Severe Behaviors?

  • Harmful to self or others: Assault and battery

  • Not Harmful to self or others but causes significant disruption of the learning environment.

Target for replacement behavior would need to be higher than the 75% proficient level

100% would need to be the target level for replacement behavior

Progress Monitoring

Using the Student’s Progress

to Monitor Effectiveness of the PSM

Intervention Strategies

Progress Monitor Student’s Response toInterventions

  • Progress monitor by observing student at least 3 times a week

  • Remember you need to progress monitor academic areas that are impacted by the behavior

  • Chart results of your behavior observations and your academic probes

  • Utilize same decision making strategies regarding changing the interventions as you would with an academic only issue

  • Remember that students who have behavioral

    issues but there is no educational impact will continue at

    PSM intervention level but will not be eligible for

    consideration for entitlement.

Example Baseline Data on Tyler Teal

  • Student: Tyler Teal

  • Grade 3

  • Target Behavior: On Task

  • Baseline Data:

    • Day 1 26/60 = 43%

    • Day 246/60 = 77%

    • Day 332/60 = 54%

    • Median32/60 = 54%

I just know I can do my work.

Set Goal for Tyler Teal

  • On task behavior falls under “level of behavior necessary for success” or proficiency level which is 75%

  • Goal for Tyler Teal’s on task behavior would be 45/60 (75%).

  • Current baseline for Tyler Teal is 32/60 or 54%

Progress Monitoring

Name: Tyler Teal

Target Behavior:

On Task

Baseline (Median): 32/60 or 54%

Goal: 45/60 or 75% Proficiency






On Task Behavior

Baseline = 54%

Day 1 = 26/60 = 43%

Day 2 = 40/60 = 67%

Day 3 = 40/60 = 67%

Day 4 = 32/60 = 54%

Day 5 = 50/60 = 83%

Day 6 = 51/60 = 85%

Day 7 = 34/60 = 57%

Day 8 = 55/60 = 92%

Day 9 = 24/60 = 40%

Day 10 = 33/60 = 55%

Day 11 = 39/60 = 65%

Day 12 = 38/60 = 63%

Day 13 = 41/60 = 68%

Day 14 = 40/60 = 67%

Day 15 = 45/60 = 75%






Week 1

Week 2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15


Will Tyler Teal get to Proficient Level within 18 weeks of Intervention?

  • Consider whether Tyler will likely reach the 75% within 18 weeks or less

  • Ask if Tyler’s projected “on task” behavior (trend) line will intersect the “aim line” within the time period above.

  • If yes, the “Growth Rate” Behavior criteria has NOT been met.

If no, then the “Growth Rate” Behavior criteria has been met.


Situation: Toby has low incidence but high intensity behaviors that meet the definition of “assault” . (i.e. hitting adults & peers such that there are safety concerns)

Toby’s Baseline: 4 thirty minute intervals in a day without incident (4/12) or 33%.

Goal : 12/12 intervals without incident or 100%.

Note: There are 12 thirty minute intervals in the day. (6 hour day)

Progress Monitoring

Name: Toby Toms

Target Behavior:

Time without Assaults

Baseline (Median): 4/12 or 33%

Goal: 12/12 or 100%



Baseline = 54%

Day 1 = 4/12 = 33%

Day 2 = 4/12 = 33%

Day 3 = 3/12 = 25%

Day 4 = 4/12 = 33%

Day 5 = 5/12 = 42%

Day 6 = 4/12 = 33%

Day 7 = 5/12 = 42%

Day 8 = 5/12 = 42%

Day 9 = 6/12 = 50%

Day 10 = 6/12 = 50%

Day 11 = 6/12 = 50%

Day 12 = 5/12 = 42%

Day 13 = 6/12 = 50%

Day 14 = 6/12 = 50%

Day 15 = 5/12 = 42%






Time Segments Without Assaults Behavior

Week 1

Week 2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15


Progress Monitoring

  • Teacher records intervals without incidents in the 12 thirty minute intervals during each day. Simply use checks on a chart for intervals without incident.

  • Record your data on a Progress Monitoring chart.

What about Toby Toms?

Would you project that he will reach 100% in 18 weeks or less?

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