A new industrial age
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A New Industrial Age. Chapter 6 US History – Honors Mr. Basich. Section 1 Objectives:. By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Explain how the abundance of natural resources, new recovery and refining methods, and new uses for them led to intensive industrialization.

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A new industrial age

A New Industrial Age

Chapter 6

US History – Honors

Mr. Basich


Section 1 objectives

Section 1 Objectives:

  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:

  • 1. Explain how the abundance of natural resources, new recovery and refining methods, and new uses for them led to intensive industrialization.

  • 2. Identify inventions that changed the way people lived and worked.


Section 1 the expansion of industry

Section 1:The Expansion of Industry:

Main Idea: At the end of the 19th century, natural resources, creative ideas, and growing markets fueled an industrial boom.

Why it Matters Now: Technological developments of the late 19th century paved the way for the continued growth of American Industry.

Key Terms:

Bessemer Process

Key Names:

Edwin L. Drake

Thomas Alva Edison

Christopher Sholes

Alexander Graham Bell


I think this group had the best commercial yesterday

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I think this group had the BEST commercial yesterday:

  • The Steel Group

  • The Typewriter Group

  • The Oil Group

  • The Telephone Group

  • The Light bulb Group


Before we start story time

Before We Start: Story Time!!!

  • The year is 1863 and railroad construction is booming. In six years, the U.S. will be linked by rail from coast to coast. Central Pacific Railroad employs mainly Chinese immigrants to blast tunnels, lay track, and drive spikes, all for low wages……


Discussion questions turn and talk

Discussion Questions: Turn and Talk:

  • 1. What dangers do you think the railroad workers will encounter? (Phineas Gage)

  • 2. How will businesses and the general public benefit from the transcontinental railroad?

  • 3. How might railroad construction affect the environment?

  • 4. What are the pros and cons of railroad expansion?


Section 1 the expansion of industry1

Section 1: The Expansion of Industry:

  • After the Civil War (1865) the U.S. was still largely agriculture

  • By 1920, the U.S. was the leading industrial power in the world

  • This enormous growth was due to three factors; 1) Natural Resources 2) Governmental support 3) Urbanization


Black gold

Black Gold:

  • In 1859, Edwin Drake used a steam engine to drill for oil

  • This breakthrough started an oil boom in the Midwest and later Texas

  • At first the process was limited to transforming the oil into kerosene and throwing out the gasoline -- a by-product of the process

  • Later, the gasoline was used for cars


Which of these was not a reason why the us was experiencing tremendous growth

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Which of these was NOT a reason why the US was experiencing tremendous growth:

  • Natural Resources

  • Government support

  • The gold rush

  • Urbanization


Bessemer steel process

Bessemer Steel Process:

  • Oil was not the only valuable natural resource

  • Coal and iron were plentiful within the U.S.

  • When you removed the carbon from iron, the result was a lighter, more flexible and rust resistant compound – Steel

  • The Bessemer process did just that (Henry Bessemer & William Kelly)

BESSEMER CONVERTOR CIRCA 1880


Why were iron and oil becoming more sought after

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Why were iron and oil becoming more sought after?

  • They were new

  • They both were extremely easy to create

  • Both were able to be transformed into other more efficient commodities

  • None of the above


New uses for steel

New Uses For Steel:

  • The railroads, with thousands of miles of track, were the biggest customers for steel

  • Other uses emerged: barbed wire, farm equipment, bridge construction (Brooklyn Bridge- 1883),and the first skyscrapers

Brooklyn Bridge: NYC


During this time period which one was not a main use for steel

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During this time period, which one was NOT a main use for steel:

  • Barbed Wire

  • Railroad tracks

  • Bridge Construction

  • Farm equipment

  • These were all main used for steel


New inventions spur industry

New Inventions Spur Industry:

  • Can you imagine living in a time when the following inventions were created?

  • 1. Electricity (how would we live without it now?)

  • 2. Telephone (no text messaging yet)

  • 3. Typewriter (before this everything was written by hand)


Electricity edison

Electricity: Edison

  • 1876- Thomas Alva Edison established the world’s first research lab in New Jersey

  • There Edison perfected the incandescent light bulb in 1880

  • Later he invented an entire system for producing and distributing electricity

  • By 1890, electricity powered numerous machines

“One percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration.”


Why do you think that the average person can relate so well with edison

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Why do you think that the average person can relate so well with Edison?

  • Because he was smart

  • Because he tried and failed so often

  • Because he made lots of money

  • All of the above


The typewriter

The Typewriter:

  • Christopher Sholes invented the typewriter in 1867

  • His invention forever affected office work and paperwork

  • It also opened many new jobs for women

  • 1870: Women made up less than 5% of workforce 1910: They made up 40%

This is the time period when secretary jobs were primarily held by women….has this changed much?


The telephone

The Telephone:

  • Another important invention of the late 19th century was the telephone

  • Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson unveiled their invention in 1876


A new industrial age

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In what ways do you think these new inventions changed the lifestyles of people living during this time period:

  • People became more efficient

  • People were able to communicated better

  • People were able to work more hours

  • All of the above could be true


Section 2 objectives

Section 2: Objectives

  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:

  • 1. Identify the role of the railroads in unifying the country.

  • 2. List positive and negative effects of railroads on the nation’s economy.

  • 3. Summarize reasons for, and outcomes of, the demand for railroad reform.


Section 2 the age of the railroads

Section 2: The Age of the Railroads:

Main Idea: The growth and consolidation of railroads benefited the nation but also led to corruption and required government regulation.

Why it Matters Now: Railroads made possible the expansion of industry across the United States.

Key Terms:

Transcontinental Railroad

Credit Mobilier

Munn vs. Illinois

Interstate Commerce Act

Key Names:

George M. Pullman


I ate breakfast this morning

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I ate breakfast this morning:

  • Yes

  • No

  • I can’t remember


The age of railroads

The Age of Railroads

  • The growth and consolidation of the railroad industry influenced many facets of American life

  • However, the unchecked power of the railroad companies led to widespread abuses and then reforms


A national network

A National Network:

  • By 1869, tracks had been laid across the continent (Golden Spike- Utah)

  • Immigrants from China and Ireland and out-of-work Civil War vets provided most of the difficult labor

  • Thousands lost their lives and tens of thousands were injured laying track


Which group provided most of the labor on the railroads

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Which group provided most of the labor on the railroads?

  • Exodusters

  • White settlers

  • Immigrants

  • The railroad owners


Railroad and time

Railroad and Time:

  • Before 1883, each community still operated on its own time

  • For example: Noon in Boston was 12 minutes later than noon in New York City

  • Indiana had dozens of different times

  • No standard time reference


Professor dowd creates time zones

Professor Dowd Creates Time Zones:

  • In 1869, to remedy this problem, Professor C.F. Dowd proposed dividing the earth into 24 time zones

  • The U.S. would be divided into 4 zones: the eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific

  • 1883 – Railroads synchronized their watches across U.S.

  • 1884 – International Conference adopts zones


Why was it necessary to have standard time zones

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Why was it necessary to have standard time zones?

  • Trains were never on time

  • People were confused about when to board

  • Business suffered because of trains being late and early

  • All of the above


A new industrial age

THE WORLD IS DIVIDED INTO 24 TIME ZONES


A new industrial age

THE UNITED STATES IS DIVIDED INTO 4 TIME ZONES


Railroads spur other industries

Railroads Spur Other Industries:

  • The rapid growth of the railroad industry influenced the iron, coal, steel, lumber, and glass businesses as they tried to keep up with the railroads demand for materials

  • The spread of the railroads also led to the growth of towns, new markets, and opportunity for profiteers


Railroads led to growth of cities

Railroads Led to Growth of Cities:

  • Many of today’s major cities owe their legacy to the railroad

  • Chicago, Minneapolis, Denver, and Seattle all grew up thanks to the railroad

Denver – The Mile High City


At this time railroads led to the growth in all of the following areas except

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At this time, railroads led to the growth in all of the following areas EXCEPT:

  • Lumbering

  • Glass

  • Plane building

  • Coal

  • Steel


Pullman a factory and a town

Pullman: A Factory and A Town

  • In 1880, George Pullman built a factory for manufacturing sleepers and other railroad cars in Illinois

  • The nearby town Pullman built for his employees was modeled after early industrial European towns

  • Pullman workers felt his puritanical town was too strict

  • When he lowered wages but not rent – it led to a violent strike in 1894

I think he pulls off this look quite well….sorry


What was the main reason why people went on strike against pullman

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What was the main reason why people went on strike against Pullman?

  • His town was too small

  • He lowered wages and not rent

  • He did not allow people to have cars

  • All of the above


Credit mobilier scandal

Credit Mobilier Scandal:

  • Stockholders of Union Pacific Railroad formed a construction company in 1864

  • Stockholders then gave contracts to the company to lay track at 3 times the actual costs and pocketed the difference

  • They donated shares of the stock to 20 Republican members of Congress in 1867


The grange and the railroads

The Grange and the Railroads:

  • Farmers were especially affected by corruption in the railroad industry

  • Grangers (a farmers organization) protested land deals, price fixing, and charging different rates to different customers

  • Granger Laws were then passed protecting farmers

  • Munn vs. Illinois: States were given regulation control of railroads by the Courts


Interstate commerce act

Interstate Commerce Act:

  • In 1887, the Federal government re-established their control over railroad activities

  • Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act and established a 5-member Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)

  • The ICC struggled to gain power until 1906


Section 3 objectives

Section 3: Objectives

  • By the end of the lesson, I will be able to:

  • 1. Identify management and business strategies that contributed to the success of business tycoons such as Andrew Carnegie.

  • 2. Explain Social Darwinism and its effects on society.

  • 3. Summarize the emergence and growth of unions.

  • 4. Explain the violent reactions of industry and government to union strikes.


Section 3 big business and labor

Section 3: Big Business and Labor

Main Idea: The expansion of industry resulted in the growth of big business and prompted laborers to form unions to better their lives.

Why it Matters Now: Many of the strategies used today in industry and in the labor movement, such as striking, have their origins in the late 19th century.

Terms:

Vertical and horizontal integration

Social Darwinism

Sherman Antitrust Act

American Federation of Labor (AFL)

Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)

Names:

Andrew Carnegie

John D. Rockefeller

Samuel Gompers

Eugene V. Debs

Mary Harris Jones


This is my musical preference

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This is my musical preference:

  • Rock

  • Rap

  • Country

  • Classical

  • Techno

  • Punk

  • Jazz


Section 3 big business and labor1

Section 3: Big Business and Labor

  • Andrew Carnegie was one of the first industrial moguls

  • He entered the steel industry in 1873

  • By 1899, the Carnegie Steel Company manufactured more steel than all the factories in Great Britain combined

Carnegie Mellon University


Carnegie business practices

Carnegie Business Practices:

  • Carnegie initiated many new business practices such as;

  • Searching for ways to make better products more cheaply

  • Accounting systems to track expenses

  • Attracting quality people by offering them stock & benefits

ANDREW CARNEGIE

1835 -1919


Why did people like to work for andrew carnegie

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Why did people like to work for Andrew Carnegie?

  • He treated them fairly

  • He provided them with good benefits

  • He had good ideas about how to make his business better

  • All of the above are true.


Carnegie s vertical integration

Carnegie’s Vertical Integration:

  • Carnegie attempted to control as much of the steel industry as possible

  • How? Vertical integration; he bought out his suppliers (coal fields, iron mines, ore freighters, and rail lines) in order to control materials and transportation


Horizontal integration

Horizontal Integration:

  • Additionally, Carnegie bought up the competition through friendly and hostile takeovers

  • This is known as Horizontal Integration; buying companies that produce similar products – in this case other steel companies


This type of integration describes a company buying out similar companies

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This type of integration describes a company buying out similar companies:

  • Vertical

  • Horizontal


This type of integration describes how a company would buy out its suppliers

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This type of integration describes how a company would buy out its suppliers:

  • Horizontal

  • Vertical


Business growth and consilidation

Business Growth and Consilidation

  • Mergers could result in a monopoly (Trust)

  • A monopoly is complete control over an industry

  • An example of consolidation: In 1870, Rockefeller Standard Oil Company owned 2% of the country’s crude oil

  • By 1880 – it controlled 90% of U.S. crude oil


Social darwinism

Social Darwinism:

  • The philosophy known as Social Darwinism has its origins in Darwin’s theory of evolution

  • Darwin theorized that some individuals in a species flourish and pass their traits on while others do not

  • Social Darwinists (like Herbert Spencer) believed riches was a sign of God’s favor, and being poor was a sign of inferiority and laziness

Charles Darwin LIMITED HIS FINDINGS TO THE ANIMAL WORLD

Herbert Spencer

COINED THE PHRASE “SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST”


Why was the concept of social darwinism controversial

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Why was the concept of Social Darwinism controversial?

  • It focused around religion

  • People didn’t want to believe that people were destined to be poor

  • They didn’t like the theorist

  • None of the above


Robber barons

Robber Barons:

  • Alarmed at the cut-throat tactics of industrialists, critics began to call them “Robber Barons”

  • Famous “Robber Barons” included Carnegie, Rockefeller, Vanderbilt, Stanford, and J.P. Morgan (pictured)


Robber barons were generous too

Robber Barons Were Generous Too:

  • Despite being labeled as greedy barons, rich industrialists did have a generous side

  • When very rich people give away lots of money it is called “Philanthropy”

  • Carnegie built libraries, Rockefeller, Leland Stanford, and Cornelius Vanderbilt built schools

ROCKEFELLER CHAPEL – UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO


Why did people call carnegie and rockefeller robber barons

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Why did people call Carnegie and Rockefeller “robber barons?”

  • They gave away money that they stole from people

  • They felt it was wrong to buy out other businesses

  • They didn’t call them robber barons

  • Carnegie was a convicted felon.


Sherman anti trust act

Sherman Anti-Trust Act:

  • In 1890, the Sherman Anti-Trust Act made it illegal to form a monopoly (Trust)

  • Prosecuting companies under the Act was not easy – a business would simply reorganize into single companies to avoid prosecution

  • Seven of eight cases brought before the Supreme Court were thrown out


Workers had poor conditions

Workers Had Poor Conditions:

  • Workers routinely worked 6 or 7 days a week, had no vacations, no sick leave, and no compensation for injuries

  • Injuries were common – In 1882, an average of 675 workers were killed PER WEEKon the job


Labor unions emerge

Labor Unions Emerge:

  • As conditions for laborers worsened, workers realized they needed to organize

  • The first large-scale national organization of workers was the National Labor Union in 1866

  • The Colored National Labor Union followed


What was the main reason why labor unions formed

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What was the main reason why labor unions formed?

  • Working conditions were harsh

  • Most workers didn’t have much time off

  • Most workers worked long days

  • All of the above are true


Craft unions

Craft Unions:

  • Craft Unions were unions of workers in a skilled trade

  • Samuel Gompers led the Cigar Makers’ International Union to join with other craft unions in 1886

  • Gompers became president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL)

  • He focused on collective bargaining to improve conditions, wages and hours


Industrial unionism

Industrial Unionism:

  • Some unions were formed with workers within a specific industry

  • Eugene Debs attempted this Industrial Union with the railway workers

  • In 1894, the new union won a strike for higher wages and at its peak had 150,000 members


Socialism and the iww

Socialism and the IWW

  • Some unionists (including Debs) turned to a socialism – an economic and political system based on government control of business and property and an equal distribution of wealth among all citizens

  • The International Workers of the World (IWW) or Wobblies, was one such socialist union


Why do you think people disagree with socialism

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Why do you think people disagree with socialism?

  • No one wants to be like everyone else

  • They don’t like their housing choices

  • The economy wouldn’t flourish in a socialistic framework

  • None of the above


Strikes turn violent

Strikes Turn Violent:

  • Several strikes turned deadly in the late 19th century as workers and owners clashed

  • The Great Strike of 1877:Workers for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad struck to protest wage cuts

  • Other rail workers across the country struck in sympathy

  • Federal troops were called in to end the strike


The haymarket affair

The Haymarket Affair:

  • Labor leaders continued to push for change – and on May 4, 1886 3,000 people gathered at Chicago’s Haymarket Square to protest police treatment of striking workers

  • A bomb exploded near the police line – killing 7 cops and several workers

  • Radicals were rounded up and executed for the crime


The homestead strike

The Homestead Strike:

  • Even Andrew Carnegie could not escape a workers strike

  • Conditions and wages were not satisfactory in his Steel plant in Pennsylvania and workers struck in 1892

  • Carnegie hired Pinkerton Detectives to guard the plant and allow scabs to work

  • Detectives and strikers clashed – 3 detectives and 9 strikers died

  • The National guard restored order – workers returned to work


Why were the workers striking

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Why were the workers striking?

  • Low wages

  • Tough conditions

  • Improper treatment of other striking workers

  • All of the above


The pullman strike

The Pullman Strike:

  • After the Pullman Company laid off thousands of workers and cut wages, the workers went on strike in the spring of 1894

  • Eugene Debs (American Railroad Union) tried to settle dispute which turned violent

  • Pullman hired scabs and fired the strikers – Federal troops were brought in

  • Debs was jailed


Women organize

Women Organize:

  • Although women were barred from most unions, they did organize behind powerful leaders such as Mary Harris Jones

  • She organized the United Mine Workers of America

  • Mine workers gave her the nickname, “Mother Jones”

  • Pauline Newman organized the International Ladies Garment Workers Union at the age of 16


Employers fight unions

Employers Fight Unions:

  • The more powerful the unions became, the more employers came to fear them

  • Employers often forbade union meetings and refused to recognize unions

  • Employers forced new workers to sign “Yellow Dog Contracts,” swearing that they would never join a union

  • Despite those efforts, the AFL had over 2 million members by 1914


Why were workers attracted to unions

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Why were workers attracted to unions?

  • They weren’t

  • They paid them more money

  • They protected them from unfair business practices and working conditions

  • They controlled big businesses


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