The Nature of Science and The Scientific Method. Chemistry – Lincoln High School Mrs. Cameron. The Purpose of Science:. Is to create models that explain natural phenomena. Model = theory = explanation. So you’ve decided to study chemistry –. Or have you?.
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Chemistry – Lincoln High School
Is to create models that explain natural phenomena.
Model = theory = explanation
Or have you?
Socrates – “academios” (grape arbor)
We learn by generalizing.
We come to knowledge through logic.
Syllogisms: Three statement arguments –
(2 statements organized to make a third.)
Girls have long hair. Mary has long hair.
Mary must be a girl.
What is reality?
Anything that changes is not real.
The only way to acquire knowledge is to study what is real.
Is there anything that doesn’t change?
Asks questions that may or may not be able to be tested.
Philosophical thinking is open ended
May be based on opinion
There is a limit to what you can know.
And here’s why….
Inductive and Deductive Reasoning and
The Scientific Method
– Start with general principle, see if individual fits generality.
Ex. Mathematical Proofs, Is Pluto a planet?
– Specific observations lead to generalizations.
Ex. Space ship visiting the high school
- The generalization has to fit the observations….
A model is the best possible explanation which accounts for all observed phenomenon and has predictability.
Science is not philosophy – it is based on observations and uses an organized, methodical method to explain the natural world.
Uses both inductive and deductive reasoning.
2. Ask a question or state a problem based on observations
3. State a hypothesis (must be able to be tested!)
4. Test the hypothesis by designing and performing experiments.
5. Analyze results
6. Share the results and conclusions with others.
The scientific method is a guideline – sometimes scientists do things out of order!