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The Nature of Science and The Scientific Method. Chemistry – Lincoln High School Mrs. Cameron. The Purpose of Science:. Is to create models that explain natural phenomena. Model = theory = explanation. So you’ve decided to study chemistry –. Or have you?.

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The nature of science and the scientific method

The Nature of Science and The Scientific Method

Chemistry – Lincoln High School

Mrs. Cameron


The purpose of science
The Purpose of Science:

Is to create models that explain natural phenomena.

Model = theory = explanation






Beginnings of science
Beginnings of Science.

  • Science has roots in philosophy

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-FlMgZcIBR0M/Th2Jv3u11XI/AAAAAAAAAOE/G9gdYevwCEk/s1600/Le+penseur.jpg


Philosophical questions:

philosophy.columbian.gwu.edu%252Fphilosophical-questions%3B556%3B703


Socrates

Socrates – “academios” (grape arbor)

http://www.penick.net/digging/images/2010_09_06_Wildflower_Center/Grape_arbor.JPG


Socrates

We learn by generalizing.

We come to knowledge through logic.

Syllogisms: Three statement arguments –

(2 statements organized to make a third.)

Girls have long hair. Mary has long hair.

Mary must be a girl.

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_qUvh8vgMY4Y/TC9jS3MwwKI/AAAAAAAAASY/NdpkyzjRafE/s1600/61.jpg


Plato - Socrate’s student.

-

What is reality?

Anything that changes is not real.

The only way to acquire knowledge is to study what is real.

http://www.towerbabel.com/media/photos/cache/plato_1_320x320.jpg


What are things that change in this world?

Is there anything that doesn’t change?

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-5scsHjiAJdg/UCfbsaKpDfI/AAAAAAAAD7A/fBvVsv0X4Es/s1248/1.jpg


Aristotle

  • Reality changes so therefore

  • Knowledge must change also.

  • Reality is experienced, physical reality.

  • There is no limit to what you can know.


Science vs philosophy
Science vs Philosophy

Science

Philosophy

Asks questions that may or may not be able to be tested.

Philosophical thinking is open ended

May be based on opinion

  • Ask questions that can be tested

  • Scientific thinking involves

    • observations

    • defining a problem

    • construction of explanations

    • evaluation of possible explanations or solutions to the problem


Albert Einstein –

There is a limit to what you can know.

And here’s why….


The Nature of Science –

Inductive and Deductive Reasoning and

The Scientific Method


Deduction or deductive reasoning
Deduction or Deductive Reasoning

– Start with general principle, see if individual fits generality.

Ex. Mathematical Proofs, Is Pluto a planet?

https://www.google.com/search?q=pluto&espv=2&biw=1440&bih=775&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=eZ8JVPmFGOrCsATR2oGoBQ&ved=0CEMQsAQ#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=XquaM_Sjr7OeiM%253A%3BYekJOp8nnlRooM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.magicalears.com%252Fclipart%252FClassic%252520Characters%252FPluto%252Fpluto001.gif%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.magicalears.com%252Fclipart%252FClassic%252520Characters%252FPluto%252F%3B1043%3B589

http://rofl-lol.com/cartoon-planet-pluto/


Faulty deductions
Faulty Deductions:

https://www.google.com/search?q=deductive+reasoning&espv=2&biw=1440&bih=775&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=l54JVNWSH7SIsQSXzYHYAw&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAg#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=lG0wiya_oikhcM%253A%3BHB4xtbvr3XJKMM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252F1.bp.blogspot.com%252F_RS7AxrV5uuc%252FSdjEiptsQQI%252FAAAAAAAAADI%252FIj1YAAl-CbM%252Fs400%252Fpenguin_syllogism.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fkjwtokjournal.blogspot.com%252F2009_04_01_archive.html%3B355%3B400


Induction or inductive reasoning
Induction or Inductive Reasoning

– Specific observations lead to generalizations.

Ex. Space ship visiting the high school

Caveman story

- The generalization has to fit the observations….


When do you have enough examples or observations
When do you have enough examples or observations?

  • Need all examples to reach certainty.

  • Never reach “certainty”

  • Inductive leap – Can’t examine all examples.

  • This means the generalization must change when an observation does not fit the generalization.


Models
Models

A model is the best possible explanation which accounts for all observed phenomenon and has predictability.

  • An unanswered question means change the model.

  • Predictability is the test of a good or “true” model.

  • Occham’s Razor – of 2 possible explanations, choose the simpler.


If the purpose of science is to create models that explain natural phenomena, then by it’s very nature it changes.

  • You can’t equate science with God, or faith or things that don’t change.

  • You can’t equate science with the truth.


Science is not philosophy – it is based on observations and uses an organized, methodical method to explain the natural world.


The scientific method

The Scientific Method and uses an organized, methodical method to explain the natural world.

Uses both inductive and deductive reasoning.

http://markread.info/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/science-dog.png


The scientific method1
The Scientific Method and uses an organized, methodical method to explain the natural world.

  • A method to solve problems

  • A method to make models

  • A method to answer questions

  • A method to explain natural phenomena


Steps in the scientific method
Steps in the Scientific Method and uses an organized, methodical method to explain the natural world.

  • Observe

    2. Ask a question or state a problem based on observations

    3. State a hypothesis (must be able to be tested!)


4. Test the hypothesis by designing and performing experiments.

5. Analyze results

6. Share the results and conclusions with others.



Experiment design
Experiment Design scientists do things out of order!

  • Independent Variable – condition changed by experimenter

  • Dependent Variable – responds to the independent variable

  • Control – holds everything but the variables constant so you can see if the variable has an effect on the outcome of the experiment.


Observations and evidence
Observations and Evidence scientists do things out of order!

  • Objective – State only what really happens (no bias or opinion)

  • Repeatable – When the same procedure is repeated by others, they obtain the same results.


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