Empowerment and decentralization the demand side
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Empowerment and Decentralization: The Demand Side. Deepa Narayan, Senior Advisor PREM,World Bank March 26, 2003. Decentralization through an Empowerment Lens. How can Empowered Local Governments Empower Poor People?. Efforts to date focused primarily on supply side

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Empowerment and Decentralization: The Demand Side

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Empowerment and decentralization the demand side

Empowerment and Decentralization: The Demand Side

Deepa Narayan, Senior Advisor

PREM,World Bank

March 26, 2003


Empowerment and decentralization the demand side

Decentralization through an Empowerment Lens

How can Empowered Local Governments

Empower Poor People?

  • Efforts to date focused primarily on supply side

  • Empowerment approach focuses on demand side

    • Empower local communities through mechanisms that increase the four elements of empowerment

    • Focus on relationship between citizens and local governments


What is empowerment

What is Empowerment?

Empowerment is expansion of the assets and capabilities of poor people to participate in, negotiate with, influence, control, and hold accountablethe institutions that affect their lives.

  • Capability

  • Institutions - social, economic, state and global

  • Participation and negotiation, voice and representation

  • Accountability

  • It is about change, in capacity of people, and the enabling environment


Empowerment and decentralization the demand side

Empowerment Framework

Reform of State Institutions Local and National

Investment in Poor People And Their Organizations


Empowerment and decentralization the demand side

Empowerment Framework

Reform of State Institutions Local and National

Investment in Poor People And Their Organizations

ASSETS AND CAPABILITIES

INDIVIDUAL

  • Material

  • Human

  • Social

  • Political


Empowerment and decentralization the demand side

Empowerment Framework

Reform of State Institutions Local and National

Investment in Poor People And Their Organizations

ASSETS AND CAPABILITIES

INDIVIDUAL

  • Material

  • Human

  • Social

  • Political

COLLECTIVE

  • Voice

  • Organization

  • Representation


Empowerment and decentralization the demand side

Empowerment Framework

Reform of State Institutions Local and National

Investment in Poor People And Their Organizations

  • SUPPORT FOR EMPOWERMENT

  • Information

  • Inclusion/

  • Participation

  • Accountability

  • Local

  • Organizational

  • Capacity

ASSETS AND CAPABILITIES

Rules, Incentives, Resources

INDIVIDUAL

  • Material

  • Human

  • Social

  • Political

Norms, Behaviors, Processes

COLLECTIVE

  • Voice

  • Organization

  • Representation


Empowerment and decentralization the demand side

Empowerment Framework

Reform of State Institutions Local and National

Investment in Poor People And Their Organizations

  • SUPPORT FOR EMPOWERMENT

  • Information

  • Inclusion/

  • Participation

  • Accountability

  • Local

  • Organizational

  • Capacity

ASSETS AND CAPABILITIES

Rules, Incentives, Resources

INDIVIDUAL

  • Material

  • Human

  • Social

  • Political

Norms, Behaviors, Processes

COLLECTIVE

  • Voice

  • Organization

  • Representation

Nature of Social & Political Structures


Empowerment and decentralization the demand side

Empowerment Framework

  • Improved governance

  • and access to justice

  • Functioning and more

  • inclusive basic

  • services

  • More equitable access

  • to markets and

  • business services

  • Strengthened civil

  • society

  • Strengthened poor

  • people’s organizations

  • Increased assets and

  • freedom of choice

Reform of State Institutions Local and National

Investment in Poor People And Their Organizations

Development Outcomes

  • SUPPORT FOR EMPOWERMENT

  • Information

  • Inclusion/

  • Participation

  • Accountability

  • Local

  • Organizational

  • Capacity

ASSETS AND CAPABILITIES

Rules, Incentives, Resources

INDIVIDUAL

  • Material

  • Human

  • Social

  • Political

Norms, Behaviors, Processes

COLLECTIVE

  • Voice

  • Organization

  • Representation

Nature of Social & Political Structures


Empowerment and decentralization the demand side

No Single Institutional Model

Principles/Elements of Empowerment

Rights, Resources, and Support to:

  • Information

  • Inclusion/Participation

  • Accountability

  • Local Organizational Capacity


Empowerment and decentralization the demand side

Four Elements of Empowerment

  • Information

  • Uganda’s Decentralization: Elite capture

    • Citizens rely on the media for information about national politics (64%), but on community leaders for local information (70%)

    • Use of media impacts corruption perception at the local level

    • Media access has positive effect on quality of service delivery

      Inclusion/Participation

  • Project Performance in Indonesia

    • Study of 48 villages

    • 38 % of all community development activities initiated by communities without any government involvement

    • Outperformed government activities on every outcome measure


Empowerment and decentralization the demand side

Four Elements of Empowerment

  • Accountability

  • Corruption in Peru

    • Rated most important problem by 85% of public service users

    • Local governments perform worse than national agencies

    • Majority of users do not know how to report corruption

      Local Organizational Capacity

  • C’Ote D’Ivoire, Water User’s Groups

    • Responsibility shifted from government to water user groups

    • Breakdown rates were reduced from 50% to 11%

    • Results sustained only where well-functioning community organizations existed


Empowerment and decentralization the demand side

Decentralization through an Empowerment Lens

Bolivia’s Experience

  • Law on Popular Participation, 1994

    • Empowered communities to oversee actions of municipal governments

  • Administrative Decentralization Law, 1995

    • Redefined roles of administrative departments

  • Survey of public officials in Bolivia

    • Municipalities with greater transparency and citizen involvement have greater poverty reduction, less bribery and job purchase

    • Only where poor people’s organizations were already strong could they take advantage of the new laws and openness

    • Where local organizations are weak, vested interests of political parties dominate


Empowerment and decentralization the demand side

Voice, Corruption, and Service Delivery in Bolivia

Source: World Bank. 2001. Voice of the Poor and Taming of the Shrew: Evidence from the Bolivia Public Officials’ Survey.


Empowerment and decentralization the demand side

Transparency and Corruption in Peru

Composite index based on the percent of respondents reporting that decisions about personnel management, bidding procedures and resource allocation in their own agency are transparent

Source: World Bank Institute. 2001. “Voices of the Misgoverned and Misruled: An Empirical Diagnostic Study on Governance, Rule of Law and Corruption for Peru.”


Empowerment and decentralization the demand side

Voice, Accountability, and Corruption in Peru

Composite index describing the existence of a system of external audit, consumer feedback, complaint mechanisms for the agency regarding personnel and budgetary decisions

Source: World Bank Institute. 2001. “Voices of the Misgoverned and Misruled: An Empirical Diagnostic Study on Governance, Rule of Law and Corruption for Peru.”


Empowerment and decentralization the demand side

What Has to Change?

Community Groups

Local Government


Empowerment and decentralization the demand side

Community Groups

Local Government


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