Cellular respiration and fermentation
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Cellular Respiration and Fermentation. sun. light energy. . CO 2. +. H 2 O. +. +. O 2. C 6 H 12 O 6. glucose. H 2 O. ATP energy. +. . +. +. O 2. CO 2. H 2 O. C 6 H 12 O 6. even though this equation is a bit of a lie … it makes a better story. Energy cycle.

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Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

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Cellular respiration and fermentation

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation


Energy cycle

sun

light

energy

CO2

+

H2O

+

+

O2

C6H12O6

glucose

H2O

ATP

energy

+

+

+

O2

CO2

H2O

C6H12O6

even thoughthis equationis a bit of a lie…it makes a

better story

Energy cycle

Photosynthesis

plants

CO2

O2

animals, plants

Cellular Respiration

ATP

The Great Circleof Life,Mufasa!


Cellular respiration and fermentation

ATP

  • ATP is biological energy

    • ATP + water  ADP + P = energy

    • When you break the bond you get energy

    • ATP = stored energy

    • ADP = used energy


Cellular respiration

ATP

energy

+

+

+

C6H12O6

6O2

6CO2

6H2O

Cellular Respiration

  • Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.

38 ATP

produced

Glucose


Cellular respiration and fermentation

Oxygen required

2 ATP needed

Cytoplasm

If no oxygen is present then fermentation occurs

CO2 released

2 ATP produced

34 ATP produced

4 ATP produced


Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm

Glycolysis(occurs in cytoplasm)

  • Break down glucose into 2 pyruvate molecules

    • Glucose has 6 carbon

    • Pyruvate has 3 carbon

  • No oxygen in required (anaerobic)

  • Needs 2ATP to happen

  • Generates 4ATP

  • Net gain of 2ATP at the end of the process


After glycolysis

After Glycolysis

  • If oxygen is present, pyruvate moves to mitochondria where cellular respiration occurs.

  • If not oxygen is present, pyruvate is used for alcoholic or lactic acid fermentation.


Cellular respiration occurs in two steps

Cellular respiration occurs in two steps

  • Kreb’s cycle or citric acid cycle

    • Produced 2ATP

  • Electron transport chain

    • Produced 34 ATP

Both processes require oxygen and occur in the mitochondria


Kreb s cycle

Kreb’s cycle

  • Pyruvic acid produced from glycolysis is used to make

    • Carbon dioxide

    • NADH

    • ATP

    • FADH2

  • 4 ATP are produced for immediate use for cell processes

  • NADH and FADH2 carry electrons to the electron transport chain to make more energy

  • CO2 is released from the cell


Electron transport chain

Electron transport chain

  • The ETC used high energy electrons from the Kreb’s cycle to convert ADP to ATP.

  • ETC is composed of a series of carrier proteins in the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

  • Water is produced and released at the end of the ETC.

  • 34 ATP are produced in the end


Fermentation

Fermentation

  • Two types

    • Alcoholic fermentation

    • Lactic acid fermentation

Both processes do not require oxygen (anaerobic) and occur after glycolysis.


Alcoholic fermentation

Alcoholic fermentation

  • Yeasts and a few other microorganisms use this process

  • CO2 bubbles that are released from this process cause bread to rise.

  • Also used to make beer and wine


Lactic acid fermentation

Lactic acid fermentation

  • Occurs in humans and other eukaryotes

  • Muscle cramps are caused by a build up of lactic acid

    • When you exercise vigorously, the large muscles run out of oxygen quickly.

    • Your muscles quickly produce ATP using lactic acid fermentation.

    • Lactic acid builds up which causes your muscles to ache.


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