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AIRCRAFT WITHOUT ADF RECEIVER. B. Rabiller / DGAC /DCS Dublin, CNS/ATM Steering Group 21-22 June 2006. Overview. Why? Regulation Airborne installation and Ground infrastructure ECAC navigation strategy Proposed way to progress Roadmap Open issues Recommendation. WHY?.

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AIRCRAFT WITHOUT ADF RECEIVER

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Aircraft without adf receiver

AIRCRAFT WITHOUT ADF RECEIVER

B. Rabiller / DGAC /DCS

Dublin, CNS/ATM Steering Group

21-22 June 2006


Overview

Overview

  • Why?

  • Regulation

  • Airborne installation and Ground infrastructure

  • ECAC navigation strategy

  • Proposed way to progress

  • Roadmap

  • Open issues

  • Recommendation

Aircraft without ADF


Aircraft without adf receiver

WHY?

  • Navaid ground infrastructure evolves

  • ECIP NAV 06 “Rationalization of navigation infrastructure”.

  • GNSS navigation possible in all phases of flight except cat II/III Precision Approaches

  • ADF is only an option for certain aircraft models (e.g. A 340-500/600)

  • ADF is not at all installed in certain Part 23 IFR aircraft (e.g. CIRRUS)

  • Some airlines already fly in European airspace without ADF receiver onboard

Aircraft without ADF


Regulation commercial air transportation

REGULATIONCommercial air transportation

  • JAR OPS 1.865 (c).(1) permits to have aircraft without ADF if this system is not required in any phase of the flight planned

  • In addition JAR OPS 1.865 (c).(1) specifies that operation w/o ADF possible provided that a/c is equipped with alternative eqt authorised for the route being flown.

    • The reliability and accuracy of alternative eqt must allow safe navigation for the intended route.

  • ACJ 1.865: IFR operation w/o ADF

    • Only possible if ADF not essential for navigation provided alternative eqt provides equivalent or better performance.

    • Operational limitations:

      • Route segments not rely solely on ADF

      • ADF/NDB procedure are not flown

      • MEL is revisited

    • Flight crew training should include ADF non-installation in initial and recurrent training

Aircraft without ADF


Regulation general aviation

REGULATIONGeneral Aviation

  • No specific requirement in ICAO Annex 6

  • For instance:

    • IFR French regulation requires:

      • An ADF or an equivalent system

      • All necessary eqt to respect published route, trajectories and procedures for the planned flight including alternate airport.

    • UK air navigation regulation–The Order and Regulation

      • Section 1 Schedule 5 “Radio-communication and radio-navigation equipment to be carried in aircraft” . An ADF receiver is required.


Airborne installation and ground infrastructure

Airborne Installation and Ground Infrastructure

  • A/C are evolving in ATM environment not identical from one country to another one

    • Different NDB ground station density

    • NDB approaches designed as conventional or as overlay

    • Infrastructure on large and medium/small airport may be different

  • Is a single answer from an aircraft point of view possible?

    • A case by case assessment is necessary

      • May be acceptable for an airline operating on large airport

      • May be unacceptable for general aviation if NDB approaches exists and are not overlaid.

    • In US or Australia ADF is no more required but the airspace policy was developed in that sense (overlay approach, NDB de-commissioning,..)

Aircraft without ADF


Ecac strategy navigation infrastructure

ECAC Strategy Navigation Infrastructure

Today

Aircraft without ADF


Ecac strategy policy for reducing ndb

ECAC StrategyPolicy for Reducing NDB

  • En-route NDBs to be removed from operation (review AIP for designation E/A)

  • Conventional SID/STAR/NPA based on NDB/DME:

    • Replace by VOR/DME

    • Remove/replace by RNAV SID/STAR after 2010 (where RNAV becomes mandatory)

    • Remove/replace by RNAV NPA or APV until 2015 where operationally beneficial and cost efficient

    • Retain one procedure per aerodrome/TMA until 2015 where operationally beneficial and cost efficient

  • Holding and MAPt

    • Replace by RNAV along with RNAV procedures

    • Retain one holding and/or MAPt fix per aerodrome until 2015 where operationally beneficial and cost efficient

  • Ref facilities for loss of Comms:

    • replace with RNAV fixes where RNAV becomes mandatory

    • Retain one per aerodrome until 2015 where operationally beneficial and cost efficient

  • NDBs not required for international operations should be withdrawn from route/aerodrome charges schemes.


Proposed way to progress 1 3

Proposed way to progress (1/3)

  • To define the ADF equivalent system

    • Easy

    • IFR GNSS based system (stand-alone or integrated nav system) approved for the corresponding phase of flight (e.g. SID/STAR)

  • Is it possible to have aircraft w/o ADF for Enroute operation?

    • Yes

    • Less and less Enroute NDB

    • An approved IFR GNSS based system (e.g. BRNAV) is necessary

    • GNSS Prediction necessary (RAIM or FDE)

Aircraft without ADF


Proposed way to progress 2 3

Proposed way to progress (2/3)

  • Is it possible to have aircraft w/o ADF for SID/STAR?

    • Possible if certain criteria are respected

    • From a procedure point of view, SID/STAR may be based on NDB:

      • NDB Fly over

      • NDB Holding

      • Define a Course

    • A SID/STAR approved IFR GNSS based system is necessary provided:

      • Whole procedure is stored in nav data base

      • Procedure is published in WGS 84

      • GNSS Prediction is checked (RAIM or FDE)

      • Nav data base integrity is demonstrated: LOA or manual verification

Aircraft without ADF


Proposed way to progress 3 3

Proposed way to progress (3/3)

  • Is it possible to have aircraft w/o ADF for NDB approaches or approaches (e.g. ILS) with NDB missed approach?

    • Possible for NDB approaches only if procedure published as an overlay

      • Flyability checked

      • Obstacle protection verified

      • Coordinates published in WGS 84

      • An approved IFR GNSS based system for approach operation is necessary provided:

        • Whole procedure is stored in nav data base

        • GNSS Prediction is checked (RAIM or FDE)

        • Nav data base integrity is demonstrated: LOA or manual verification

        • A non based GNSS approach is available at the destination or at the alternate

    • Not possible if NDB approaches are not published as overlay

    • Not possible for approaches (e.g. ILS) with NDB missed approach.

      • Crew workload

      • Human factor

      • Procedure design

Aircraft without ADF


Roadmap

ROADMAP

  • First Check your regulation (aircraft and airspace)

    • For commercial air transportation

    • For General aviation

  • Assess the navaid infrastructure:

    • NDB Density

    • Airport categories having NDB approaches (large, medium, small)

    • Characterise the backup navigation infrastructure (VOR,DME,ILS,..)

  • A/C without ADF possible for Enroute operation

    • With an approved GNSS based navigation system

  • A/C without ADF possible for Terminal operation

    • With an approved GNSS based navigation system (SID/STAR)

    • Procedure published in WGS 84

  • A/C without ADF for Approach operation:

    • Possible if the NDB procedure is published as an overlay

      • With an approved GNSS based navigation system

      • A non GNSS approach available at the destination or at the alternate

    • Not possible if the NDB procedure is not published as an overlay

    • Not possible for approaches (e.g. ILS) having a “missed” based on NDB


Open issues

OPEN ISSUES

  • Is GNSS availability sufficient?

    • Is FDE necessary to improve GNSS availability?

  • Is navigation continuity sufficient?

    • Is a single GNSS system onboard sufficient?

    • VOR and DME must be still be fitted onboard

  • Role of NDB in supporting BRNAV and PRNAV as a reversionary capabilities

    • Need to check existing safety case

  • If ground NDB density is important:

    • Management of aircraft w/o ADF in IFR is an issue

    • May be acceptable for commercial air transportation whereas it could be unacceptable for general aviation

Aircraft without ADF


Recommendation

Recommendation

  • Requires a close coordination with Eurocontrol and ANSPs

  • Aircraft without ADF is a reality and the problem should be addressed ASAP

  • JAA developed a policy some years ago for commercial air transportation (JAR OPS).

  • It is highly recommended to have a similar process for non public transport aircraft but answers could be different:

    • What is the more relevant process to address this issue ?

      • A European letter giving general guidelines for having an harmonized implementing process

      • Other proposal?

Aircraft without ADF


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