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Periodic Functions and Fourier Series - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Periodic Functions and Fourier Series. A function. is periodic. if it is defined for all real . such that. Periodic Functions. and if there is some positive number,. . be a periodic function with period. Fourier Series. The function can be represented by a trigonometric series as:.

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Periodic Functions and Fourier Series

is periodic

if it is defined for all real

such that

Periodic Functions

and if there is some positive number,

.

Fourier Series

The function can be represented by a trigonometric series as:

.

We want to determine the coefficients,

Let us first remember some useful integrations.

to

Integrate both sides of (1) from

function,

.

You may integrate both sides of (1) from

It is alright as long as the integration is performed over one period.

Multiply (1) by

to

and then Integrate both sides from

Second term,

Let us do the integration on the right-hand-side one term at a time.

Third term,

Multiply (1) by

to

and then Integrate both sides from

Second term,

Let us do the integration on the right-hand-side one term at a time.

Third term,

We can write about?n in place of m:

to

In writing the Fourier series we may not be able to consider infinite number of terms for practical reasons. The question therefore, is – how many terms to consider?

1.5 function.

1

0.5

f

(

q

)

0

0.5

1

1.5

q

When we consider 4 terms as shown in the previous slide, the function looks like the following.

1.5 function.

1

0.5

f

(

q

)

0

0.5

1

1.5

q

When we consider 6 terms, the function looks like the following.

1.5 function.

1

0.5

f

(

q

)

0

0.5

1

1.5

q

When we consider 8 terms, the function looks like the following.

1.5 function.

1

0.5

f

(

q

)

0

0.5

1

1.5

q

When we consider 12 terms, the function looks like the following.

1.5 function.

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

q

The red curve was drawn with 12 terms and the blue curve was drawn with 4 terms.

1.5 function.

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

0

2

4

6

8

10

q

The red curve was drawn with 12 terms and the blue curve was drawn with 4 terms.

1.5 function.

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

0

2

4

6

8

10

q

The red curve was drawn with 20 terms and the blue curve was drawn with 4 terms.

Even and Odd Functions function.

(We are not talking about even or odd numbers.)

Mathematically speaking - function.

Even Functions

The value of the function would be the same when we walk equal distances along the X-axis in opposite directions.

Mathematically speaking - function.

Odd Functions

The value of the function would change its sign but with the same magnitude when we walk equal distances along the X-axis in opposite directions.

5 function.

0

5

10

0

10

q

Even functions can solely be represented by cosine waves because, cosine waves are even functions. A sum of even functions is another even function.

5 function.

0

5

10

0

10

q

Odd functions can solely be represented by sine waves because, sine waves are odd functions. A sum of odd functions is another odd function.

is expressed in terms of a cosine series.

The Fourier series of an odd function

is expressed in terms of a sine series.

Therefore,

The corresponding Fourier series is

w is the angular velocity in radians per second.

f note. is the frequency of the periodic function,

where

Therefore,

when function.n is even.

The Complex Form of Fourier Series function.

Let us utilize the Euler formulae.

th harmonic component of (1) can be function.

The

expressed as:

, function.

and

Denoting

The Fourier series for function.

can be expressed as:

The coefficients function.can be evaluated in the following manner.

Note that function.

is the complex conjugate of

.

Hence we may write that

.

with period

is: