Toxicity Testing. and Environmental Risk Assessment. Dimensions of the Toxic Chemical Problem. Chemical entities4-10 million Developed annually ~ 6000 In commerce ~ 65,000 In common use ~ 6,000 Regulated water 129 air 25.
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Environmental Risk Assessment
History of Aquatic Toxicology
(pollution by synthetic
Point source discharge into a fly ash collection pond
The means by which the toxicity of a chemical or other test material is determined
Simultaneous chemical detection
and biological effects
Acute toxicity test
Chronic toxicity test
Chronic toxicity testing
Fish – life cycle at least 3 to 6 months
Invertebrates – complete life cycle in 3 days
(water flea -Ceriodaphnia dubia)
Algae toxicity test, EPA laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio
Photo by R. Grippo
Single species Multi-species Mesocosm
The lowest test concentration that is significantly different from control
The highest test concentration that is not significantly different from control
“The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them”
- Albert Einstein
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