THE TISSUES  INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

THE TISSUES INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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THE TISSUES INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

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1. THE TISSUES & INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY (LABORATORY MANUAL) BY: ROMER, PINO, POPE, CHAPTER # 2 FUNDAMENTALS OF ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY BY MARTINI, 7TH EDITION, CHAPTERS # 4 & 5

2. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. PRESENTATION CREATED BY: ALFONSO A. PINO, MD.

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4. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE

5. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. BASE It contains: Off on switch Voltage regulator illuminator

6. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. STAGE It supports the microscope slides and contains slide clips and mechanical stage

7. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. MECHANICAL STAGE It has 2 knobs for movement of the slides from left to right and front to back

8. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. SUBSTANCE CONDENSOR It has 3 parts: blue filter iris diaphragm condenser lens

9. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. Blue filter: the short wavelength of the blue light provides maximum resolution Iris diaphragm: controls the amount of light passing from the slide source Condenser lens: collets and focuses the light from the illuminator onto the slide

10. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. LENSES They magnify the image Objectives: they have 3 or 4 objectives 4X scanner 10X low power 40X high dry 100 X oil emersion lens Ocular lens or eyepiece: it is 10X and it can have a scale

11. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. ADJUSTMENT KNOBS They are for focusing Coarse adjustment knob: for locating and focusing objects (DO NOT USE for high magnification) Fine adjustment knob: (small) for focusing on higher powers

12. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. ARM Supports the objective lens

13. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. CARES OF THE MICROSCOPE When moving the microscope, carry it with 2 hands (one hand to grip the arm and the other under the base Lenses have to be clean with lens paper (to keep them free of oil and dust). Do not use the coarse adjustment when focusing with the higher power objectives

14. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. PROCEDURES 1- Turn on the illuminator using the on/off switch 2- Turn the nosepiece to bring the 4X objective (scanner) into position 3- Raise the stage into its highest position 4- Place a slide of the letter “e” in the slide clamp on the stage 5- Turn the coarse adjustment knob to bring the “e” into focus 6- Measure the field (the brightly lighted circle that you see when you look through the ocular lens) 7- Center the ”e” in your field of view and then rotate the nosepiece to 10X 8- Use the fine adjustment knob to focus until the image is sharp. Draw the image. Do not use the coarse adjustment 10- Rotate the nosepiece until the 40X. Draw the image

15. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. CUBOIDAL CELLS Simple cuboidal kidney

16. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. SQUAMOUS CELLS

17. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. COLUMNAR CELLS Simple columnar small intestine

18. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. TISSUE CONCEPT- IT IS A COLLECTION OF SPECIALIZED CELLS & CELLS PRODUCTS THAT ARE ORGANIZED TO PERFORM FUNCTIONS 4 TYPES : EPITHELIAL TISSUE CONNECTIVE TISSUE MUSCLE TISSUE NEURAL TISSUE

19. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. EPITHELIAL TISSUE- IT COVERS EXPOSED SURFACES (SKIN), LINES INTERNAL PASSAGES & CHAMBERS (DIGESTIVE, RESPIRATORY, REPRODUCTIVE AND , URINARY SYSTEMS ) IT FORMS GLANDS CONNECTIVE TISSUE- IT FILLS INTERNAL SPACES, PROVIDES STRUCTURE SUPPORT , TRANSPORTS MATERIAL WITHIN THE BODY & STORES ENERGY MUSCLE TISSUE- IT CONTRACTS TO PERFORM MOVEMENT. IT GENERATES HEAT THAT WARMS THE BODY NEURAL TISSUE- IT CARRIES INFORMATION FROM ONE PART OF THE BODY TO ANOTHER BY ELECTRICAL IMPULSES

20. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. FUNCTIONS OF THE EPITHELIA PHYSICAL PROTECTION- FROM ABRASION, DEHYDRATION, CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL AGENTS CONTROL PERMEABILITY- REGULATED BY HORMONES, TRANSPORT IONS & NUTRIENTS PROVIDES SENSATIONS- TOUCH RECEPTORS, NEUROEPITHELIUM CONTEINS SENSORY CELLS THATPRODUCE SENSATIONS OF SMELL, TASTE, SIGTH, EQUILLIBRIUM OR HEARING PROVIDES SECRETIONS- GLANDS CELLS PRODECE SECRETIONS FOR PHYSICAL PROTECTION, CHEMICAL MENSSAGERS IN INTERSTITIAL FLUID & BLOOD

21. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. CLASSIFICATION OF THE EPITHELIA SHAPE- SQUAMOUS- THIN & FLAT CUBOIDAL- LIKE LITTLE HEXAGONAL BOXES COLUMNAR- TALLER & MORE SLENDER NUMBER OF CELLS SIMPLE- SINGLE LAYER OF CELLS STRATIFIED- SEVERAL LAYERS OF CELLS COMBINATIONS OF SHAPE & NUMBER

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23. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. TYPES OF EPITHELIA TISSUES WITH EXAMPLES SIMPLE SQUAMOUS- Lung, serous membranes, lining heart STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS- epidermis, mouth, throat, vagina SIMPLE CUBOIDAL- glands, ducts, kidney tubules STRATIFIED CUBOIDAL- linings some ducts TRANSITIONAL- urinary bladder, ureters SIMPLE COLUMNAR- stomach, gallbladder, uterine tubes PSEUDOSTRATIFIED CILIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM- respiratory tract STRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM- salivary glands ducts

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31. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. FUNCTIONS OF THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE IT FORMS AN STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK IT TRANSPORTS FLUID & MATERIALS IT PROTECTS DELICATES ORGANS IT SUPPORTS, SURROUNDS & INTERCONNECTS TISSUES IT STORAGES ENERGY IT CONTAINS CELLS THAT DEFEND THE BODY FROM MICROORGANISMS

32. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE COLLAGEN FIBERS THEY ARE LONG, STRAIGTH & UNBRANCHED THEY ARE A BUNDLE OF FIBROUS PROTEIN SUBUNITS WOUND TOGETHER THEY HAVE LITTLE STRETCH, BUT GREAT TENSILE STRENGH THEY FORM TENDONS AND LIGAMENTS RETICULAR FIBERS THEY HAVE SAME SUBUNITS THAN COLLAGEN FIBERS BUT WITH A DIFFERENT PHYSICAL ARRNGEMENTARRANGEMMENT THEY FORM A NETWORK THAT RESISTS FORCES APPLY FROM MANY DIRECTIONS AND THEY STABILIZE RELATIVE POSITION OF CELLS, ORGANS, BLOOD VESSELS, NERVES & OTHER STRUCTURES

33. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. ELASTIC FIBERS THEY CONTEIN PROTEIN ELASTIN THEY ARE BRANCHED & WAVY AFTER STRECHING, THEY CAN RETURN TO THEIR ORIGINAL LENGTH THEY LACK THE TENSILE STRENGTH OF COLLAGEN THEY DOMINATE IN ELASTIC LIGAMENTS

34. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. TYPES OF CONNECTIVE TISSUES AREOLAR ADIPOSE RETICULAR DENSE REGULAR DENSE IRREGULAR ELASTIC CARTILAGE BONE BLOOD LYMPH

35. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. Areolar tissue (Martini pg 119)

36. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. Adipose tissue (Martini pg 122)

37. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. Reticular tissue (Martini pg 122)

38. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. Dense regular connective tissue (Martini pg 124)

39. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. Dense irregular connective tissue (Martini pg 124)

40. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. Elastic tissue (Martini pg 124)

41. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. Hyaline cartilage (Martini pg 127)

42. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. Bone tissue (Martini pg128)

43. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. Blood (Martini pg125)

44. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

45. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM (Martini, chapter 5; pg 154) LAYERS OF THE SKIN FROM EXTERNAL TO INTERNAL: 1- EPIDERMIS 2- DERMIS 3- HYPODERMIS

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47. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. EPIDERMIS Function- protection from chemical, physical & biological agents 5 strata (from external to internal) Stratum corneum Stratum lucidum Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum germinativum (basale)

48. Stratum corneum- 15-30 layers of keratinized cells. Water resistant F- allows insensible perspiration More or less 500 ml of water every day Stratum lucidum- clear layer only in thick skin (palms & soles). F-contains flattered & packed cells filled with the protein keratin Stratum granulosum- grainy layer F- to produce protein keratin & keratohyalin basic structural component of hair & nails Stratum spinosum (8 to 10 layers) F- it contains Langerhands cells for Immune response against microorganisms & Cancer cells Stratum germinativum or basale(The innermost) F- cells divide to replace superficial cells it contains Melanocytes –to produce melanin For protection against uv radiation

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50. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. DERMIS Function- thermoregulation & protection 2 mayor components- papillary & reticular layers Papillary l- contains capillary & lymphatic vessels & sensory neurons function- support & nourishment of the overlaying epidermis Reticular l- deep to papillary layer function- to resist tension in the skin

51. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. HYPODERMIS FUNCTION- ENERGY STORE CUSHIONING INSULATION

52. ACCESSORY STRUCTURES Meissner’s corpuscles (white in models) F- light touch & tactile receptors Pacinian corpuscles (olive in models) F- deep pressure & vibration receptors Sebaceous glands- discharges waxy sebum into the hair follicle F- lubrication Hair: for protection, insulation, and tactile reception. It is divided into: Shaft: exposed hair and first part under skin Root- surrounded by hair follicle. Contains hair papilla- at the base Hair bulb- surrounds the papilla Arrector pili- smooth muscle that erects the hair Sweat glands- Apocrine Merocrine

53. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. Apocrine sweat gland Secrets its products into the hair follicle Begins its function at puberty Bacteria can intensify its odor Present only under armpits, around the nipples and groin Merocrine sweat gland- Discharge its contends directly on the skin surface Sensible perspiration and thermoregulation by cooling surface of skin to reduce body temperature. It also acts to excrete water and electrolytes and reduces growth of microorganisms.

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56. ALFONSO A. PINO MD. REMEMBER, GO TO THE TUTORING ROOM AND PRACTICE WITH MODELS! ROOM 3326

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