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Honors Chemistry Section 4.3. Electron Configurations. Electron Configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom Every atom has a unique electron configuration Atoms tend to lowest E state, so normally exist in ground state. Electron Configuration.

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Honors chemistry section 4 3

Honors ChemistrySection 4.3

Electron Configurations


Electron configuration

Electron Configuration


Rules for electron configuration

  • Aufbau atom Principle – Electrons occupy the lowest energy orbital available to them

  • Pauli Exclusion Principle – No two electrons can have the same 4 quantum numbers

  • Hund’s Rule – Orbitals of equal energy (called degenerate orbitals) are each occupied by one electron, before any is occupied by a second electron. All single electrons have the same spin.

Rules for Electron Configuration



Orbital notation

  • Hydrogen atom

    • 1s

  • Helium

    • ↿⇂

      1s

  • Oxygen

    • ↿⇂ ↿⇂ ↿⇂↿⇂ ↿⇂

      1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz

Orbital Notation


Electron configuration1

  • Hydrogen atom

    • 1s1

  • Helium

    • 1s2

  • Oxygen

    • 1s2 2s2 2p4

Electron Configuration



Practice

Practice


Definitions

  • Highest Occupied Level – The highest main energy level (highest n value) that contains an electron

  • Outer shell electrons – electrons in the Highest Occupied Level

  • Inner shell electrons – all those electrons EXCEPT those in the Highest Occupied Level

  • Example – Carbon

    • 2 inner shell electrons

    • 4 outer shell electrons

Definitions


Noble gases

  • Noble gas – Has full s and p orbitals (highest n value) that contains an electron

  • Noble gas configuration

    • [symbol] stand for the complete electron configuration of the specified noble gas

    • Add electrons after noble gas required for element.

    • Na – [Ne] 3s1

Noble Gases


Important note

Important Note


Filling orbtials and the periodic table
Filling (highest n value) that contains an electronOrbtials and the Periodic Table


Fourth period

  • Fill 4s first (highest n value) that contains an electron

  • Then next lowest energy 3d – it fills next

  • Followed by 4p

Fourth Period


4 th period exceptions to the expected filling order know these

  • Chromium (highest n value) that contains an electron

    • Expected - [Ar] 3d4 4s2

    • Actual - [Ar] 3d5 4s1

    • Why?

      • Two half filled orbitals have more stability and lower energy than one full and one partially full

  • Copper

    • Expected - [Ar] 3d8 4s2

    • Actual - [Ar] 3d10 4s0

    • Why?

      • A full d orbital and unfilled s orbital have more stability and lower energy than one full and one partially full

4th Period Exceptions to the Expected Filling Order – KNOW THESE!!!!


5 th block exceptions to the expected filling order

5th Block Exceptions to the Expected Filling Order


Practice1

  • What element has 2 electrons in the p orbitals in the 2 (highest n value) that contains an electronnd Energy Level?

  • What is the maximum number of electrons that can be found on the second energy level?

  • What element in the third period has the same outer electron configuration as the element in #1?

Practice


More practice

More Practice


Even more practice

  • What element has the configuration [Ne]3s energy level?1?

  • How many inner shell electrons does this element have?

  • What is the Noble Gas configuration for Al?

    • How many outer shell electrons?

    • How many inner shell electrons?

Even More Practice


Are you ready for more

Are you Ready for More?


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