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Honors Chemistry Section 4.3. Electron Configurations. Electron Configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom Every atom has a unique electron configuration Atoms tend to lowest E state, so normally exist in ground state. Electron Configuration.

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honors chemistry section 4 3

Honors ChemistrySection 4.3

Electron Configurations

electron configuration

Electron Configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom

  • Every atom has a unique electron configuration
  • Atoms tend to lowest E state, so normally exist in ground state
Electron Configuration
rules for electron configuration

Aufbau Principle – Electrons occupy the lowest energy orbital available to them

  • Pauli Exclusion Principle – No two electrons can have the same 4 quantum numbers
  • Hund’s Rule – Orbitals of equal energy (called degenerate orbitals) are each occupied by one electron, before any is occupied by a second electron. All single electrons have the same spin.
Rules for Electron Configuration
orbital notation

Hydrogen

1s

  • Helium
    • ↿⇂

1s

  • Oxygen
    • ↿⇂ ↿⇂ ↿⇂↿⇂ ↿⇂

1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz

Orbital Notation
electron configuration1

Hydrogen

    • 1s1
  • Helium
    • 1s2
  • Oxygen
    • 1s2 2s2 2p4
Electron Configuration
practice

What is the electron configuration of Carbon?

  • Write the electron configuration and orbital notation for Sulfur
Practice
definitions

Highest Occupied Level – The highest main energy level (highest n value) that contains an electron

  • Outer shell electrons – electrons in the Highest Occupied Level
  • Inner shell electrons – all those electrons EXCEPT those in the Highest Occupied Level
  • Example – Carbon
    • 2 inner shell electrons
    • 4 outer shell electrons
Definitions
noble gases

Noble gas – Has full s and p orbitals

  • Noble gas configuration
    • [symbol] stand for the complete electron configuration of the specified noble gas
    • Add electrons after noble gas required for element.
    • Na – [Ne] 3s1
Noble Gases
important note

All noble gases have full outer main energy levels

    • He – 2 electrons (Energy Level n=1)
    • All others – 8 electrons (Energy Level n = 2 to 7)
Important Note
fourth period

Fill 4s first

  • Then next lowest energy 3d – it fills next
  • Followed by 4p
Fourth Period
4 th period exceptions to the expected filling order know these

Chromium

    • Expected - [Ar] 3d4 4s2
    • Actual - [Ar] 3d5 4s1
    • Why?
      • Two half filled orbitals have more stability and lower energy than one full and one partially full
  • Copper
    • Expected - [Ar] 3d8 4s2
    • Actual - [Ar] 3d10 4s0
    • Why?
      • A full d orbital and unfilled s orbital have more stability and lower energy than one full and one partially full
4th Period Exceptions to the Expected Filling Order – KNOW THESE!!!!
practice1

What element has 2 electrons in the p orbitals in the 2nd Energy Level?

  • What is the maximum number of electrons that can be found on the second energy level?
  • What element in the third period has the same outer electron configuration as the element in #1?
Practice
more practice

What element has 5 electrons in the p sublevel on the third energy level?

  • How many total electrons does this element have on the third energy level?
  • What element in the 4th Period has the same outer configuration as this element?
More Practice
even more practice

What element has the configuration [Ne]3s1?

  • How many inner shell electrons does this element have?
  • What is the Noble Gas configuration for Al?
    • How many outer shell electrons?
    • How many inner shell electrons?
Even More Practice
are you ready for more

Write the electron configuration and Noble Gas configuration for Ti.

  • How many electron containing orbitals in Ti?
  • How many orbitals in Ti are completely filled?
Are you Ready for More?
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