Design by Composition for Layered Manufacturing. Mark R. Cutkosky Stanford Center for Design Research. http://cdr.stanford.edu/interface. Outline. Layered manufacturing processes: commercial (additive) vs SDM (addition, removal, insertion) Design decomposition vs design by composition
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Mark R. Cutkosky
Stanford Center for Design Research
Sample prototype (ME310 power mirror for UT Auto)
Selective laser sintering (UT Austin)
3D printing (MIT)
Shape deposition manufacturing (CMU/Stanford)Layered manufacturing processes
Engineering materials (metals,
ceramics, strong polymers)
Not quite direct from CAD model...
“Look and feel” prototype
Complex 3D shapes
direct from CAD model
Usually people think of taking a finished CAD model and submitting it for decomposition and manufacture
Example: the slider-crank mechanism, an “integrated assembly” built by SDM
(a) no good
Gray = steel, brown = copper support material
Users build designs by combining primitives with Boolean operations
merged by designer
merged by algorithm
Compact precedence graph
BMerging Algorithm Example
C=A È B
a1 b1Algorithm: intersection compacts
Truth tables for result material
(In practice, 10-20 merged compacts for moderately complex designs)
design by multi-material parts and embedded components
a) multi-material parts and embedded components
Minimum gap/rib thickness
Generalized 3D gap/rib
Wc/l >= 2
Minimum feature thicknessToward a mechanical MOSIS?
Polygons and Wires
SFF/SDM Design Rules
Mead-Conway Design Rules
Bold arrows are
Shaft coupling multi-material parts and embedded components
Leg linksApplication: Small robots with embedded sensors and actuators
Building small robot legs with pre-fabricated components is difficult…
Is there a better way?
Steel leaf spring
Designer composes the design from library of primitives, including embedded components
Outlet for valve
Inlet port primitive
Robot Leg design multi-material parts and embedded components (cont’d.)
Internal components are modeled in the 3D CAD environment.
Sensor and circuit
Components are prepared with spacers, etc. to assure accurate placement.
Robot Leg: compacts multi-material parts and embedded components
The output of the software is a sequence of 3D shapes and toolpaths.
Robot leg: manufacturing multi-material parts and embedded components
Manufacturing takes place in the Stanford Rapid Prototyping Lab
Part material is Urethane. The support is red and blue wax. Cavities inside valves were first filled with soap.
Sensor and circuit
A snapshot just after valves and pistons were inserted.
Robot Leg: completed multi-material parts and embedded components
Finished parts ready for testing
Summary & status multi-material parts and embedded components
Thanks to M. Binnard, S. Rajagopalan, J. Cham, B. Pruitt and Y. Sun for
their help in generating the results described in this presentation and to the Stanford Rapid Prototyping Lab for their help in building the parts.
This work has been supported by the
National Science Foundation (MIP-9617994)
and by the Office of Naval Research (N00014-98-1-0669)