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C Red. Carbon Reduction. Low Carbon Workshop. Keith Tovey ( 杜伟贤) MA, PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Н.К.Тови М.А д-р технических наук Energy Science Director HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation. What we can all do to save the planet from the consequences of Global Warming.

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Carbon Reduction

Low Carbon Workshop

Keith Tovey (杜伟贤)

MA, PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv

Н.К.Тови М.Ад-р технических наук

Energy Science Director

HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation

What we can all do to save the planet from the consequences of Global Warming


Time is getting short to save the planet

Time is getting short to save the planet

18th November 2007

  • IPCC climate report of 2500 Scientists – November 2007.

  • World is dying, but can we unite to save it?

  • Pollution in the seas from burning fossil fuels is now speeding global warming

    • increases in droughts,

    • heatwaves

    • floods

    • famine

    • poor and elderly will suffer most

  • Can we all agree what to do by 2010?


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    Change in precipitation 1961-2001

    Source: Tim Osborne, CRU

    Total summer precipitation

    Total winter precipitation


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    Increasing Occurrence of Drought


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    Increasing Occurrence of Flood

    Source: Tim Osborne, CRU


    Climate change arctic meltdown 1979 2003

    2003

    1979

    Climate Change: Arctic meltdown 1979 - 2003

    تغير المناخاثار على الجليديه القطبيه كاب 1979 - 2003

    • Summer ice coverage of Arctic Polar Region

    • NASA satellite imagery

    • الصيف الجليد في القطبالشمالي تغطية المنطقة القطبيه

    • ناسا الصور الفضاءيه

    • 20% reduction in 24 years

    • 20 ٪تخفيض في 24 سنوات

    Source: Nasa http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2003/1023esuice.html


    What causes the emissions of carbon dioxide

    What causes the emissions of carbon dioxide?

    • What is the magnitude of the problem?

    • What can we all do about it?


    What is the magnitude of the problem

    What is the magnitude of the problem

    Each person in Libya causes emission of 7.58 tonnes of CO2 each year.

    What volume does that occupy?

    4.25 hot air balloons

    How does Libya compare with other countries?

    Why do some countries emit more CO2 than others?


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    The magnitude of the problem

    1 hot air balloon = 1.8 tonnes

    Each person in Libya emits equivalent of 4.25 balloons

    1 party balloon = 10 gms

    1 big balloon = 900 000 party balloons


    How to reduce causes of global warming

    How to reduce causes of Global Warming

    • Reduce energy use.

      • How?

      • Switch off unnecessary appliances

      • Change how we do things - change the setting on the thermostat

    • Improve efficiency of Energy Use

      • Insulate buildings to keep them warm in winter and cool in summer.

    • Technical improvements in equipment

      • More efficient refrigerators, cars etc.

    • Use Renewable Energy rather than fossil fuels to generate electricity.

    • Offset residual emissions


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    How is electricity generated


    Electricity generation in libya

    Electricity Generation in Libya

    For each unit of electricity used.

    Heat Lost from power station

    4.24 kWh

    Lost from wires

    0.47 kWh

    Oil

    4.73 kWh

    Electricity actually used

    1.0 kWh

    Electricity

    1.67 kWh

    Power Station

    28% efficient in Libya

    Used for extracting oil and gas

    0.20 kWh

    GAS

    1.19 kWh

    Each unit of electricity used causes the emission of 1532 gms of CO2

    In UK 520 gms, France 70 grams China 850 gms

    18.47 million tonnes of CO2 are emitted in the generation of Electricity

    Data from IEA Balance Tables for Libya.


    Electricity generation in libya and uk

    Electricity Generation in Libya and UK

    Losses 28%

    Power Station

    Oil 80%

    Gas 20%

    Emissions depends on efficiency, losses and fuel

    28% efficient in Libya

    Coal 1000 – 1300 gms

    Oil 900 - 1100

    Gas 400 – 600 gms

    Coal 37.7%

    Gas 35.5%

    Oil 1.3%

    Other 2.0%

    Renewable 4.7%

    Nuclear 18.9%

    Power Station

    Losses 8.5%

    42% efficient in UK

    Each unit of electricity used causes the emission of 1532 gms of CO2 in Libya and520 gms in UK.


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    Solar Energy - The BroadSol Project

    Solar Collectors installed 27th January 2004

    Annual Solar Gain 910 kWh


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    Options for Renewable Electricity Generation

    • On shore wind

    • 1.5 MW machine will provide energy for 1000 homes in UK

    • Possibly 3000 homes in Libya

    • New machines are twice as big

    66 m

    66 m


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    Options for Renewable Electricity Generation

    Off shore wind

    Has 30 turbines and can provide sufficient electricity for 35 000 houses in UK


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    Solar Electricity

    It is still quite expensive


    Hydroelectricity

    Hydroelectricity

    Some countries have a high proportion of hydro electricity -

    Norway ~ 99%

    UK ~ 2%


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    Options for Renewable Electricity Generation - Biomass


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    Short rotation coppice (SCR) - Willow

    ENERGY CROPS

    Miscanthus

    • But Land Area required is very large - 10000 sq km would be needed to generated just 5% of UK electricity needs.

    • What % of area of UK would be needed just for electricity?

    90%


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    Options for Renewable Electricity Generation - Biomass

    • Transport Fuels:

    • Biodiesel?

    • Bioethanol?

    • Compressed gas from

    • methane from waste.


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    Options for Renewable Electricity Generation - Wave


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    Options for Renewable Electricity Generation - Wave


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    Options for Renewable Electricity Generation - Tidal


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    Options for Renewable Electricity Generation

    Geothermal


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    Solar Energy - The BroadSol Project

    Solar Collectors installed 27th January 2004

    Annual Solar Gain 910 kWh


    Performance of a solar thermal system

    Performance of a Solar Thermal System

    Data collect 9th December 2006 – 30th October 2007


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    Raising Awareness

    At Gao’an No 1 Primary School in Xuhui District, Shanghai

    • In UK a tumble dryer uses 4 times as much energy as a washing machine. Using it 5 times a week will cost over £100 a year just for this appliance alone and emit over half a tonne of CO2.

    • 10 gms of carbon dioxide has an equivalent volume of 1 party balloon.

    • A Mobile Phone charger: up to 20 kWh per year ~ 3000 balloons each year. 30 kg CO2

    • Standby on electrical appliances

      • ~60+ kWh a year - ~9000 balloons.

    • Filling up with petrol (~£38 for a full tank – 40 litres)

    • --------- 90 kg of CO2 (5% of one hot air balloon)

    Or one party balloon every 50 m


    Involve the local community

    Involve the local Community

    • The residents on the island of Burray (Orkney) campaigned for a wind turbine.

    • On average they are more than self-sufficient in electricity needs and indeed are a net exporter of electricity.

    • Many of the Islanders bought shares in the project and are now reaping the reward.

    • Orkney is hoping to be a zero net emitter of carbon dioxide by 2015.

    • Even better things are happening on the Island of Westray.


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    Involve the local Community

    Even better things are happening on the Island of Westray.

    The Parish Kirk, and Community Centre are heated by heat Pumps partly powered by Wind Turbines

    Waste cooking oil from other islands is processed into biodiesel for farm and other vehicles.

    Ethanol used in process is obtained from fermentation of harvested sea weed


    A pathway to a low carbon future

    A Pathway to a Low Carbon Future

    • Switch off unnecessary appliances.

    • Turn up thermostat by 1 deg in summer and 1 deg lower in winter

    2. Improve Efficiency

    3. Renewable Energy

    4. Offset – plant trees


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    Elsewhere

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    Birmingham

    Carbon Reduction

    Chester

    Carbon Reduction

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    North Carolina

    Carbon Reduction

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    Okinawa

    Carbon Reduction

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    Australia

    Carbon Reduction

    Shanghai

    Carbon Reduction

    Overseas

    In the Future


    So what can you do what can you do as a school

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    Libya??

    Carbon Reduction

    So what can you do?What can you do as a School

    • Pledge to save energy

    • Join and commit to Carbon Dioxide reduction

    • >>>

    CRED

    LaoTzu (604-531 BC) Chinese philosopher

    "If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading."


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    CRed

    Carbon Reduction

    Keith Tovey (杜伟贤)

    MA, PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv

    Н.К.Тови М.Ад-р технических наук

    Energy Science Director

    HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation

    Email: [email protected]

    This presentation will be placed on WEB at

    www.cred-uk.org

    >>Follow Academic Links


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    The average

    family car

    releases

    10 grams

    of CO2

    every 50m

    Animation Courtesy of Rob Hannington


    Insulating a building will keep it cool and save energy

    Insulating a building will keep it cool and save energy

    An insulated building will heat up less quickly and save energy


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    1.0

    0.5

    0.0

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    Is Global Warming man made?

    actual

    predicted

    Temperature Rise (oC)

    1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000

    • Predictions include:

    • Greenhouse Gas emissions

    • Sulphates and ozone

    • Solar and volcanic activity

    Prediction: Anthropogenic only

    Not a good match between 1920 and 1970

    Source: Hadley Centre, The Met.Office


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    1.0

    0.5

    0.0

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    1.0

    0.5

    0.0

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    Is Global Warming man made?

    actual

    predicted

    Temperature Rise (oC)

    1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000

    Temperature Rise (oC)

    1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000

    • Predictions include:

    • Greenhouse Gas emissions

    • Sulphates and ozone

    • Solar and volcanic activity

    Prediction: Natural only

    good match until 1960

    Source: Hadley Centre, The Met.Office


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    1.0

    0.5

    0.0

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    Is Global Warming man made?

    actual

    predicted

    Temperature Rise (oC)

    1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000

    • Predictions include:

    • Greenhouse Gas emissions

    • Sulphates and ozone

    • Solar and volcanic activity

    Prediction: Natural and Anthropogenic

    Generally a good match

    Source: Hadley Centre, The Met.Office


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    Gas and Oil Production - ASPO projection 2004

    35

    30

    25

    20

    15

    10

    5

    0

    Billion barrels of oil a year

    1930 1950 1970 1990 2010 2030 2050


    Electricity generation in libya1

    Electricity Generation in Libya

    Heat Lost from power station

    51104 GWh

    Lost from wires

    5704 GWh

    28%

    Oil

    57001 GWh

    Electricity actually used

    12059 GWh

    Electricity

    20202 GWh

    Power Station

    28% efficient in Libya

    Used for extracting oil and gas

    2403 GWh

    GAS

    14305 GWh

    Each unit of electricity used causes the emission of 1532 gms of CO2

    In UK 520 gms, France 70 grams China 850 gms

    18.47 million tonnes of CO2 are emitted in the generation of Electricity

    Data from IEA Balance Tables for Libya.


    Using energy causes emission of co 2

    Using Energy causes emission of CO2

    • What fuels do you use to heat your home in winter?

      • Gas?

      • Oil?

      • Electricity?

    • What fuels do you use in summer?

      • Electricity?

    • Each fuel emits different amounts of carbon dioxide

    • Gas for heating 210 – 260 gms per unit of heat 21 – 26 balloons

      • Approximately same in all countries

    • Oil for heating 310 – 400 gms

      • Similar same in all countries

    • Electricity 1530 grms [153 balloons] for Libya

    • But 520 gms in UK and 80 gms in Switzerland

    Why the difference?


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    Options for Renewable Electricity Generation - Tidal


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    Options for Renewable Electricity Generation

    Tidal Barrages

    Output 78 000 GWh per annum

    Sufficient for 13500 houses in Orkney

    Save 40000 tonnes of CO2


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