Physiology of the Thyroid gland. Thyroid Gland. Introduction. Thyroid gland maintains levels of metabolism in tissues. Thyroid hormones stimulate oxygen consumption in most cells of the body. Regulates lipid and CHO metabolism . Necessary for normal growth and maturation .
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Maternal iodine deficiency
Fetal thyroid dysgenesis
Inborn errors of thyroid synthesis
Maternal antibodies that cross placenta
Fetal hypo pituitary hypothyroidism
In most cases if iodine is deficient in the diet but not absent, the individual will remain euthyroid (normal fxn thyroid) but will develop a goiter.
This is called Endemic goitre.