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Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport. Daryl Siedentop. Basic Concept of Fitness. Chapter 7. Discussion Questions. Should health fitness become a major, independent goal of school Physical Education? Explain why, or why not. Discussion Questions.

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Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport

Daryl Siedentop

Basic Concept of Fitness

Chapter 7


Discussion Questions

Should health fitness become a

major, independent goal of school

Physical Education?

Explain why, or why not.


Discussion Questions

To what extent are the differences in

kinds of fitness misunderstood by the

public?

How can the public

be better educated?


Discussion Questions

For which population groups might

cosmetic fitness be more important

than health fitness?

How can that emphasis be changed?

Should it be changed?


Discussion Questions

Give one example of how each of the

training principles is violated.

Which principle is violated most

often?


Discussion Questions

How can aerobic fitness be developed

and maintained in everyday life?

How can strength fitness be developed

and maintained?


Discussion Questions

How fit are you? Answer in terms of

your health and motor performance.

What factors in your life have

contributed to your fitness or to

your lack of fitness?


Discussion Questions

What fitness programs have you

enrolled in?

Which appealed to you? For what

reasons?

Which ones did not? For what reasons?


Discussion Questions

To what extent do youth and adults suffer

from societal pressures to look fit?


Discussion Questions

How will the focus on moderate levels of

physical activity affect fitness programs?


Introductory points

  • Landmark document:

    Surgeon General’s Report on Physical

    Activity and Health (1996).

  • Highlights the role of physical activity

    (PA) in maintaining good health . . .

  • Rapid rise overweight and obesity in

    children, youth, and adults (see also Box 7.1)


Introductory points

  • Rise in overweight and obesity across

    all age groups, w. thus increased risk

    of numerous chronic diseases (incl.

    youth!):

Orthopedic

problems

Heart

disease

Stroke

High BP

Depression

Gallbladder

disease

Type II

Diabetes

Forms

of Cancer

Osteoarthritis


Introductory points

  • Obesity is now the second leading cause of death in the US.

  • The estimated economic burden of sedentary lifestyles in the US:

    $1,200.000.000.00 . . .

  • Hence, the emergence of PA as a central part of the national health objectives.


Contemporary Understanding of Fitness

  • “Fitness” is the umbrella term for several related concepts (see Box 7.2).

Wellness

Physical

Activity

Hypo-kinetic

Diseases

Aerobic

Exercise

CV

Endurance

Anaerobic

Leisure

Activity

Body

Composition

Healthy

Lifestyle

Health

Can you define, explain their differences?


Contemporary Understanding of Fitness

  • Types of Fitness:

  • Health fitness

  • Motor performance fitness

  • Cosmetic fitness


Contemporary Understanding of Fitness

  • Health Fitness

  • Everybody should strive for this.

  • Is a key component of Wellness.

  • Helps prevent hypo-kinetic diseases

    & improve quality of life (especially

    through aerobic-type exercises) .

(Remember: Health is not merely the absence of disease!)


Contemporary Understanding of Fitness

  • Health Fitness - Its components

    (see also Box 7.3).

  • Cardio-vascular endurance.

  • Flexibility.

  • Muscular strength.

  • Muscular endurance.

  • Body composition

  • Maintaining each component is essential

  • Gains are fleeting: “You gotta keep at it!”


Contemporary Understanding of Fitness

  • Health Fitness

  • Maintaining each component is essential

So, why the emphasis on “daily PA”?

“You gotta keep at it!”

“There is no off-season.”

“You snooze, you lose”

THE GAINS ARE FLEETING


Contemporary Understanding of Fitness

  • Motor Performance Fitness

  • More specific to improving

    performance (typically in a Sport).

  • Its components:(see also Box 7.4)

  • Very much sport-, skill, & position-

    specific.

  • Agility

  • Balance

  • Coordination

  • Power

  • Reaction time

  • Speed


Contemporary Understanding of Fitness

  • Motor Performance Fitness

  • Rank the components in order of

    importance for the following skills:

  • Free throw (BB).

  • Tennis Serve.

  • Shot put (T&F).

  • Golf drive.

  • Pitch in Golf.

  • Hurdles (T&F).

  • Guarding a Wide Receiver (FB)

  • Agility

  • Balance

  • Coordination

  • Power

  • Reaction time

  • Speed


Cosmetic Fitness

  • “Looking good/fit” is in

  • Important for both men and women.

  • It was not always thus.

  • If not confused/equated with Health

    fitness, it can be positive.


Cosmetic Fitness

  • Its dark side:

  • Eating disorders.

  • Tinning (1985):

    “the cult of slenderness.”

  • Cultural pressures to look thin are

    enormous (e.g., consider the media, magazines,

    weight-loss industry, -quackery).


The Dose-Response Debate

  • Exercise epidemiology’s central

    question:

How much, for how long, and at what

intensity (dose) does one need to

exercise, to obtain the health benefits

(response) ?


The Dose-Response Debate (Cont’d.)

  • The link between PA and “all-cause

    mortality.”

  • Inverse and linear!

  • Moving from being sedentary to

    being moderately active provides the

    greatest gains in reducing the risk of

    dying prematurely from chronic

    diseases.


The Dose-Response Debate (Cont’d.)

  • Fitness is improved when the amount of PA increases relative to a combination of:

  • Frequency (how often)

  • Intensity (how hard)

  • Time (how long)

  • Type (what kind)

“Progressive overload”


The Dose-Response Debate (Cont’d.)

  • The F.I.T.T. Principle applied to

    increasing Cardio-Vascular Endurance

  • Frequency: 3-5 days of the week.

  • Intensity: 60-90% of max HR (see Box 7.5).

  • Time: 20-60 minutes.

  • Type: Cycling , running, aerobics.


The Dose-Response Debate (Cont’d.)

  • Health is improved when one moves

    from being sedentary to accumulating

    at least 30 minutes of PA at moderate

    levels of intensity.

  • Can be accumulated in shorter bouts.

  • PA Guidelines for children and adolescents

    differ from adults.


The Dose-Response Debate (Cont’d.)

  • PA Guidelines for adolescents:

  • Daily:

    At least 30 min. of planned exercise.

  • Three or more times p. wk.:

    20 minutes in Moderate to Vigorous

    Physical Activity (MVPA).

NASPE, 1997


The Dose-Response Debate (Cont’d.)

  • PA Guidelines for children:

  • Daily:

    Accumulate at least 60 min. of

    age-appropriate PA (incl. MPVA).

  • Most PA should be intermittent in

    nature.

NASPE, 2004


The Dose-Response Debate (Cont’d.)

  • Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity

    (MVPA):

  • Includes a broader range of PA’s.

  • Any PA that requires at least the energy

    expenditure needed for a brisk walk.

  • MVPA concept has influenced how we

    view fitness education for children &

    youth.


The Social Gradient in Health and Fitness

  • How does SES affect health and quality

    of life?

  • Competing views:

  • One’s fitness & health is an individual

    responsibility . . . .

    vs.

  • One’s environment influences the degree

    to which one can develop, maintain, or

    improve fitness/health (A socio-

    ecological view).


The Social Gradient in Health and Fitness

  • A socio-ecological view of health/fitness

  • Evidence:

    Lower inequality = increased life

    expectancy.

  • Health is now seen as a social commodity . . .

  • How equitable is the access to:

    Safe activity spaces, nutritious food, health

    care, health information, etc.?


The Social Gradient in Health and Fitness

  • A socio-ecological view of health/fitness

  • While individual responsibility is essential,

    how do we ensure that as a society ALL

    have access/opportunity to a physically active

    lifestyle?


Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles

  • General Training Principles (using the F.I.T.T.

    concept as the basis):

  • Specificity.

  • Progressive overload.

  • Recovery.

  • Intensity.

  • Duration.


Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles (Cont’d.)

  • Health Fitness Training:

  • Targets all health fitness components:

  • CV endurance.

  • Muscular Strength (esp. the core!).

  • Flexibility.

Pilates/Yoga!


Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles (Cont’d.)

  • Continuous & Interval Training:

  • Continuous: HR is sustained in training zone for 30 minutes (or more) 3-5 times p. wk.)

  • Interval: Rest periods are interspersed with 2-3 min. outs of high intensity activity bouts (80% of max. HR).

  • Both can build and maintain

    fitness levels.


Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles (Cont’d.)

  • Anaerobic Training:

  • Short duration exercise (w. intervals of rest)

    without taxing the aerobic (O2) energy

    system.

  • Must work at near maximum capacity.

  • Can build muscle mass, bone

    density, lower resting metabolic

    rate.


Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles (Cont’d.)

  • Anaerobic Training: (cont’d.)

  • Goals: Build explosive power, agility,

    employ greater force.

  • Essential for: Sprinters, Gymnasts, Wrestlers,

    Football players.


Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles (Cont’d.)

  • Strength Training:

  • Strength programs vary the following

    variables:

  • Amount of resistance per lift.

  • # of repetitions (sets).

  • # of sets p. workout.

  • # of workouts p. wk.


Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles (Cont’d.)

  • Strength Training: (cont’d.)

  • Muscular endurance:

  • Lower resistance.

  • Higher # of repetitions (sets).

  • Muscular strength:

  • Higher resistance.

  • Lower # of repetitions (sets).

At or > 75% of 1-rep max.

strength will improve


Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles (Cont’d.)

  • Strength Training: (cont’d.)

  • General training principles apply to

    developing muscular strength and -endurance.

  • For ex., rest periods will vary depending on

    goals of a program.

  • Done w. either (or both)

    free weights or machines.


Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles (Cont’d.)

  • Strength Training: (cont’d.)

  • Major muscles typically targeted:

  • Chest

  • Back

  • Shoulders

  • Triceps

  • Biceps

  • Quadriceps

  • Hamstrings

  • Neck

  • Forearms

  • Lower legs

  • Strength conditioning is

    part of every sport!


Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles (Cont’d.)

  • Flexibility:

  • Essential (but often neglected) component.

  • Static Flexibility: Range-of-motion limit

    around a joint

  • Dynamic Flexibility: Rate of increase in

    muscle tension as it is stretched.


Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles (Cont’d.)

  • Flexibility: (cont’d.)

  • Decreases with age.

  • Preferably done during cool-down phase.

  • At least 3 times a week, w. 4-5 bouts per

    muscle.

  • Stretch slow, & hold for 30s.


Measurement of Fitness & Physical Activity

  • What makes fitness program effective ...

…for a soccer player?

…for a golfer?

…for you?

It depends on the goal . . .

. . . Performance?

. . . Looks?

. . . Health?


Measurement of Fitness & Physical Activity

  • Measuring Health-related Fitness

  • Two primary methods:

  • Fitness Tests.

  • Direct measures of CV fitness &

    body composition.


Measurement of Fitness & Physical Activity

  • Fitness Tests

  • Common test components:

  • Body Composition.

  • Back flexibility.

  • Abdominal Strength.

  • Upper body strength.

  • cardiovascular capacity.


Measurement of Fitness & Physical Activity

  • Fitness Tests

  • Common Fitness tests:

  • Fitnessgram®

  • Physical Best.

  • Reporting of results:

  • Norm-referenced (comparison to like

    population).

  • Criterion-referenced (comparison to

    a standard associated with health).

  • Interpretation zones.


Measurement of Fitness & Physical Activity


Measurement of Fitness & Physical Activity

  • Body composition (a strong predictor of risk for

    degenerative diseases).

  • Common assessment types:

  • Skinfold measurements (relatively easy

    and inexpensive)

  • Hydrostatic weighing.

  • Densitometry (dual X-ray absorptiometry).


Measurement of Fitness & Physical Activity

  • MVPA.

  • Possible assessment tools:

  • HR Monitor

  • Accelerometer

  • Pedometers

  • Activitygram

  • Metabolic equivalent (MET)

  • AAHPERD Functional Fitness Test

  • Each has its advantages and disadvantages.


Measurement of Fitness & Physical Activity

  • Informal Measurement of Fitness:

  • More valued by typical adult.

  • Examples:

  • Simple HR check (checking threshold &

    recovery).

  • Tracking time and distance for the

    same exercise.


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