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Wireless Sensor Networks for Bridge Monitoring. Overview. Monitoring Opportunities Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Field Installations CUED Humber Bridge. A Variety of Problems. Steel Bridges corrosion, strain, displacement, bridge bashing Masonry Arch Bridges

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Presentation Transcript
overview
Overview
  • Monitoring Opportunities
  • Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)
  • Field Installations
    • CUED
    • Humber Bridge
a variety of problems
A Variety of Problems
  • Steel Bridges
    • corrosion, strain, displacement, bridge bashing
  • Masonry Arch Bridges
    • water ingress, material loss, displacement
  • Reinforced Concrete Bridges
    • corrosion, strains, cracking
steel bridges
Steel Bridges
  • The Humber Bridge
  • One network has already been installed to measure the corrosion environment
  • Future networks could include vibration and acoustic emission monitoring
rc bridges monitoring opportunities
RC Bridges – Monitoring Opportunities
  • Half Joints
    • 450 bridges
    • Difficult to inspect
  • Hinge Joints
    • 100 bridges
  • Prestressed reinforcement condition
rc bridges monitoring techniques
RC Bridges – Monitoring Techniques
  • Strains
    • Electrical resistance or MEMS vibrating wire gauges
  • Corrosion
    • Acoustic Emissions (AE), but are there others?
  • Inclination
    • Abutments & bearings
  • Displacements
    • Across joints & cracks, bearings
masonry arch bridges
Masonry Arch Bridges
  • Monitoring possibilities
    • Digital imaging to measure displacements & loss of material
    • Sensors to measure water ingress into the joints
    • MEMS to measure pressure at the joints
other issues
Other Issues
  • Bridge bashing
  • Terrorist threats
  • Fire
  • Weather
    • Snow or ice on the running surface
slide9
WSNs
  • Networks composed of Sensors, Motes and Gateways
  • Motes take signal from sensor (typically analogue), process it and transmit it
  • Gateways collect data from Motes and transmit it to the outside world (ADSL, GPRS, WiFi etc.)
current wsns
Current WSNs
  • Currently have a Crossbow network up and running in the Engineering Department
  • System measures Temperature, Light, Sound, Acceleration and Magnetic Fields
  • Data is acquired wirelessly from Motes in multiple rooms
data visualization
Data Visualization
  • A web interface to interrogate the Engineering Network
  • Allows user to interrogate the data for multiple motes, sensors and date ranges
  • Ultimately also have alerts and tie-in to analysis software
anchorage deployment success eventually
Anchorage Deployment- Success! (eventually)
  • Network consists of 11 MICAzs (10 with MTS400 sensor boards) and a Stargate gateway
  • The Stargate is connected to the Cambridge server via ADSL
  • Data can be accessed in near real-time via a webpage
anchorage deployment monitoring results
Anchorage Deployment - Monitoring Results
  • Data shows good correlation with expected results
  • System has already picked up an anomaly in operation (dehumidifier testing)
  • Future developments may include tabulating maximum values and email alerts if thresholds are crossed
anchorage deployment problems
Anchorage Deployment – Problems
  • Initial network formation problems due to wrong monitoring software & lengthy route update times
  • Radio transmission problems due to:
    • Antenna quality
    • Spacing between wall and antenna
    • Fading
  • Solution: external antennas with higher gain (5 dBm)
rc bridge monitoring
RC Bridge Monitoring
  • Monitor inclination of bearings using inclinometers
  • Monitor crack movement using LPDTs
  • Determine if there is long-term movement
    • Key Challenges: determining thresholds and actions
  • Potential for expansion of the network
truly remote monitoring
Truly Remote Monitoring
  • Proof of concept for completely remote system
  • Data will be transmitted using GPRS (mobile phone) technology
  • The gateway will be powered by a solar panel attached to the bridge
acceleration response of hangers
Acceleration Response of Hangers
  • Vibration response may indicate damage
    • We need to be able to determine damping ratio with time
  • Issues exist in terms of high data rate (power) and aerodynamic behaviour
    • Fortunately we can minimize power use by ‘windowing’ the data
    • Using MEMS sensors we can minimize the profile of the mote
rh corrosion moisture sensing of main cables
RH / Corrosion / Moisture Sensing of Main Cables
  • A number of potential techniques:
    • Acoustic Emission (AE), RH or electrical resistance
  • AE is commonly used but requires high data rate processing & high power
    • We are working with Holroyd / Corus and colleagues from Imperial to develop a potential system
  • Are the other techniques viable?
can we cram it all in
Can we cram it all in?
  • Advantages of this project include staged deployment, projects of interest to everyone, various levels of complexity
  • However implementing everything may be beyond the temporal and financial means of the project
  • Priorities?
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