10 apr 2007 tcss431 network security stephen rondeau institute of technology lab administrator
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10 Apr 2007 TCSS431: Network Security Stephen Rondeau Institute of Technology Lab Administrator. Windows Forensics. Agenda. Forensics Background Operating Systems Review Select Windows Features Vectors and Payloads Forensics Process Forensics Tools Demonstration. Forensics Background.

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Windows Forensics

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10 Apr 2007

TCSS431: Network Security

Stephen Rondeau

Institute of Technology

Lab Administrator

Windows Forensics


Agenda

  • Forensics Background

  • Operating Systems Review

  • Select Windows Features

  • Vectors and Payloads

  • Forensics Process

  • Forensics Tools Demonstration


Forensics Background

  • Inspection of computer system for evidence of:

    • crime

    • unauthorized use

  • Evidence gathering/preservation techniques for admissibility in court of law

  • Consideration of suspect's level of expertise

  • Avoidance of data destruction or compromise


Operating System Review

  • What does an OS do?


Operating System Review

  • What does an OS do?

    • starts itself

    • low-level management of:

      • interrupts, time, memory, processes, devices (storage, communication, keyboard, display, etc.)

    • higher-level management of:

      • file system, users, user interface, apps

    • addresses issues of fairness, efficiency, data protection/access, workload balancing


Select Windows Features

  • Kernel vs. User Mode

  • Kernel features (architecture)

    • device drivers

    • installable file system

    • object security

  • Services


Computing

Device

input

output

Hub

Computing Devices: Simplistic

  • Computing Device

    • takes some input

    • processes it

      • OS, services, applications

    • provides some output

  • Network

    • connects device

  • Data

  • ?


Computing Devices: Reality

In

Human

K/M/touch,etc.

Out

Human

A/V

Data

Scanner/GPS

In/Out

Data

Storage Device, PC Card,

Network, Printer, Etc.


Computing Devices: Connections

  • removable media

    • floppy,CD/DVD,flash,microdrive

  • PC Card

  • wired

    • serial/parallel,USB,Firewire,IDE,SCSI,twisted pair

  • wireless

    • radio (802.11, cellular, Bluetooth)

    • Infrared (IR)

    • Ultrasound


Vectors and Payloads

  • Vector: route used to gain entry to computer

    • via a device without human intervention

    • via an unsuspecting or willing person's actions

  • Payload: what is delivered via the vector

    • malicious code

    • may be multiple payloads

    • spyware, rootkits, keystroke loggers, bots, illegals software, spamming, etc.


Forensics Process

  • Assess

    • after permission is granted

    • determine how to approach affected system(s)

    • watch out for anti-forensics

    • how to stop computer processing?

  • Acquire

    • capture volatile data

    • copy hard drive

  • Analyze


Volatile Data

  • All of RAM, plus paging area

  • Logged on users

  • Processes (regular and services)

  • Process memory

  • Buffers

  • Clipboard

  • Network Information

  • Command history


Nonvolatile Data

  • Partitions

  • Files

    • hidden, streams

  • Registry Keys

  • Recycle Bin

  • Scheduled Tasks

  • User information

  • Logs


What to Look For

  • Know baseline system: what to expect of good system

  • Malware Footprint

    • in logs

    • on file system (changed dates/sizes)

    • in registry

    • in startup areas

    • in service list

    • in network connections

  • Abnormalcy – functionality, performance, traffic patterns

  • Cross-check with multiple tools


Microsoft Tools

  • Basic

    • Windows Update, Malicious Software Removal, Baseline Security Analyzer, Time Service, Routing and Remote Access, Event Viewer, EventCombMT, LocalService, NetworkService, Runas, systeminfo, auditpol

  • Network tools

    • netstat -anob, nbtstat, ping, tracert, arp, netsh, ipconfig

  • File

    • dir /ah, dir /od, dir /tc, findstr, cacls

  • Services

    • net start/stop, sc

  • Process:

    • tasklist, taskkill, schtasks


  • External Tools

    • antivirus

    • backup

    • www.sysinternals.com

      • RootKitRevealer, ProcessExplorer, WinObj, Autoruns

      • PSTools: pslist, psexec, psservice, psgetsid, etc.

  • www.e-fense.com: Helix

    • statically-linked tools, variety of other tools

  • Bart’s PE


  • References

    • Windows Forensics and Incident Recovery, Harlan Carvey, Addison-Wesley 2005

    • Windows Forensic Analysis DVD Toolkit , Harlan Carvey, Syngress 2007

    • File System Forensic Analysis,Brian Carrier, Addison-Wesley 2005

    • Rootkits, Greg Hoglund and James Butler, Addison-Wesley 2006


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